Clinical Oncology: Case Reports

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A Rare Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Rectum Presenting as Hematochezia

Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum originates from the rectal mucosal lining, extending from the rectosigmoid junction to the anorectal ring, and is not a distant metastasis or an extension from the anogenital region. Primary versus extension or metastasis can be distinguished by physical, endoscopic, and radiological findings and immunohistochemistry of the specimen. The pattern of presentation for patients with rectal squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. The most frequently reported symptoms is rectal bleeding and rectal pain. Here we present a case of moderately differentiated primary rectal squamous cell carcinoma in a 65-year-old female patient. With about 150 cases reported in the literature, and due to the rarity of this malignancy, there are no randomized clinical trials or guidelines to dictate treatment. Our case report emphasizes the understanding of primary rectal squamous cell carcinoma and its treatment with definitive chemoradiation, which has resulted in complete remission in our patient.

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