Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND): Prevalence, Pathogenesis, Detection, Causative Factors and Mitigating Methods.
Since its emergence in 2009, Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) has caused substantial economic losses to the shrimp industries. However, presently, there is no ‘silver bullet’ or effective treatment for this disease. The recent progress in molecular and proteomic techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the AHPND toxins and their characteristics. However, fundamental knowledge gaps remain although some of the key host-pathogen interactions have been well-established via several types of shrimp challenge test, detailed histopathological analysis and development of molecular tools to detect AHPND. Hence, further research is still required to fully understand the mechanisms and mode of infection for this disease. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic and emphasises the current progress and critique strategies for AHPND treatment.