Analgesic, Antipyretic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Egyptian Spitting Cobra; Naja nubiae Venom
Objectives: Although many venomous snakes represent a potential human health threat, their venoms provide a rich source of active components, many of which have been recently identified, and used as potential candidates for pharmacological therapeutic purposes. The current study was designed to evaluate the analgesic, antipyretic and antiinflammatory activities of the Egyptian spitting cobra Naja nubiae venom.
Methods: The venom of N. nubiae was intraperitoneally injected at two dose levels (1/10 and 1/5 LD50). The peripheral and central analgesic effects were examined using acetic acidinduced abdominal writhing in mice and tail immersion test in rats, respectively. Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats was carried out to determine the antipyretic activity of the same doses, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was tested using carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice.
Results: The results showed that N. nubiae venom produced a significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response in mice and thermal nociception in rat. Moreover, the venom revealed a significant antipyretic effect on yeast-induced pyrexia. In paw edema, venom exhibited a significant activity with a maximum percentage of inhibition reaching 60.1% on both doses after 5 hour treatment, which was more powerful when compared with the standard drug; diclofenac sodium (38.6%). Histologically, the venom induced a moderate inflammatory cells infiltration in the dermis of paw.
Conclusion: These results suggest potential analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the Egyptian spitting cobra crude venom.