Cholesterol Metabolism: As a Promising Target Candidate for Tuberculosis Treatment by Nanomedicine
We are facing a tremendous need to develop anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs due to extreme rise in incidence and mortal cases of this disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), the causative agent behind this malady have attained the drug-resistant characteristic by adding mutation at its genetic level and modifying their metabolic pathways. An important metabolic pathway employed in the bacterium is cholesterol metabolic pathway. Cholesterol is needed by the bacterium for attachment, entry, as a major nutrient source, persistence, and infection in the host. Manifold roles of cholesterol in M. tuberculosis making it an important mark to target the survival and virulence of the bacterium. Genetic regulation of cholesterol metabolism is a complex phenomenon. This review emphasizes the close and quick view towards cholesterol metabolism in M. tuberculosis and nanotechnology strategies to target this pathway. Targeting this pathway with specific biomarker designed nanoparticles loaded with anti-cholesterol drugs (Azasteroid, steroid, econazole, etc.) might be a better way of treatment. Antituberculosis drugs that could target their specific enzymes could lead to hindrance in uptake and degradation of this lipid and thus lead to nutrient depletion and accumulation of toxic metabolites which may ultimately lead to bacterial death.