Concentrates from Aframomium melegueta K. Schum and Vernonia amygdalina Delile Inhibit Proliferation of Atypical Fowl Pox Virus in Embryonated Chick Eggs (Eces)
This study evaluated the inhibition property of concentrates from Aframomium melegueta K.Schum and Vernonia amygdalina Delile against the proliferation of atypical Fowlpox virus strain (FPV Kabete) in Embryonated chick eggs (ECEs). We determined the effect of the concentrates on the propagation of the atypical FPV in ECEs via virus inhibition assay and linked the possible mechanisms by which compounds present in the concentrates were able to reduce the levels of cytopathic effect expressions caused by the atypical FPV in ECEs. The results showed that the concentrates had multiple inhibitory effects against the FPV while they showed mild toxicities in chick embryos with toxic threshold concentration set at 300 µM. In summary, the A. melegueta concentrate had stronger inhibitory effect against the FPV proliferation; it increased the average embryo weight (from 12.56 ± 1.61 g to 23.19 ± 1.79 g) and diminished the FPV Log10EID50 titer from 3.86 to 3.08. It also reduced the mean number of pock lesions from 18.28 ± 1.84 pfu/100EID50 to 2.19 ± 0.65 pfu/100EID50 and likewise reducing the mean pock diameter from 22.48 ± 2.74 mm to 4.89 ± 1.04 mm. Comparatively, the V. amygdalina concentrate showed lesser inhibitory effect than the A. melegueta concentrate; it increased the average embryo weight (from 12.56 ± 1.61 g to 19.49 ± 1.33 g), diminished the FPV Log10EID50 titer from 3.86 to 3.34, reduced the mean number of pock lesions from 18.28 ± 1.84 pfu/100EID50 to 6.85 ± 1.77 pfu/100EID50 and likewise reducing the mean pock diameter from 22.48 ± 2.74 mm to 8.96 ± 1.26 mm. This study showed the efficacy of the concentrates to inhibit the proliferation of the FPV in ECEs and that compounds contained in the concentrate can lead the discovery for biosynthesis of novel antipoxvirus inhibitors.