Dietary Strategies for Metabolic Syndrome: A Review
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipemia (elevated plasma triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance, which can manifest as elevated fasting plasma glucose. Patients classified as having metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for developing chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle modification is generally recognized as a key intervention in metabolic syndrome; however, the complex nature of this condition complicates treatment strategies. Specific dietary alterations have been shown to improve the metabolic derangements that constitute metabolic syndrome therefore dietary intervention is a primary focus of treatment. Nonetheless, the most effective dietary pattern for the treatment of metabolic syndrome has not yet been established. On the other hand, within the context of the overweight and obesity epidemic that is currently a global public health crisis, reducing caloric intake and increasing physical activity to achieve weight loss can improve the metabolic abnormalities observed in metabolic syndrome. The present review aims to analyze different dietary patterns with potential benefits
on metabolic syndrome status in order to identify efficient strategies to fight against metabolic syndrome and associated diseases.