Effect of Drug Abusing on Treatment Outcomes among Tuberculosis Patients with Respect to Gender Disparities
Background: Drug abuse has been associated with a higher prevalence of TB infection and incidence of TB disease. It is an important epidemiological factor for poor treatment outcomes among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of drug abusing on treatment outcomes of TB patients and clinical comorbidities with respect to gender disparities. Methods: Institution based retrospective study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015. Data was collected for TB patients with drug abuse registered for TB treatment in a tertiary level referral hospital. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Frequency, means and percentage (%) were used to present data. Logistic regression model was used to assess the association of treatment outcomes with socio-demography profile and comorbidities. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 850 total patients, 104 patients (12.2%) were confirmed drug abusers. Ninety-six percent of patients were male and 87.5% were diagnosed with Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) cases. Around 79 patients (76%) were reported to be sputum culture or AFB smear positive. Around 37 (35.5%) were cured, 20 (19.2%) cases completed their treatment, 20 (19.2%) had interrupted treatment, while 24 patients (23%) died during treatment and 3 patients were transferred to other location. Current drug abusers 1.276 (1.108-1.453; P=<0.001), prisoners 1.572 (1.220-2.055; P=<0.001) and smokers 1.45 (1.141-1.846, P=0.002), patients with HIV sero positive status 1.269 (1.100-1.563 P=<0.001) and those with smear positive 1.517 (2.137-2.440; P=0.003) had significantly higher risk of unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Conclusion: In the current study, the treatment success rate was lower than WHO set target. Drug abuse together with comorbidities found to have important effect on treatment outcomes among TB patients.