Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Drug-Induced Liver Injury and Liver Diseases: An Unlighted Novel Mechanism
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a very important organelle in the eukaryotic cells. It has two types: rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER, RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER, SER). ER plays a vital role in many cellular processes such as secretory and membrane protein synthesis, folding, assembly, trafficking and post-modulation. The lumen of the ER contains the highest concentration of Ca2+ within the cell because of active transport of calcium ions by Ca2+ ATPases and it is a unique environment in which an incredible process of protein quality control checking is performed.