Epidemiological Trends in Skin Cancer among Patients at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah: A Follow-Up Study
Skin cancer appears to be more common in males than females, although this trend is reversed in younger patients. The most common type of lesion was basal cell carcinoma, which most often developed in the head and neck region. Skin cancer trends at KAUH have remained consistent for the last several decades, suggesting that more work is needed to investigate specific risk factors for this geographical region. Importance: The incidence of skin cancer has continued to rise recently, affecting a large number of people in different geographical areas. Cutaneous carcinoma is classified as either malignant melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Even though melanoma is the rarest type and the deadliest form, it is now becoming more prevalent. Objective: To identify the current epidemiological trends in the prevalence of malignant skin tumors at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in comparison to previous years. In addition, we aimed to examine patterns of skin cancer incidence based on gender, age of diagnosis, and anatomical locations. Design: Retrospective study, Cross-sectional Setting: King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) Participants: All histologically diagnosed patients with major skin cancer types during the six-year period from January 2011-December 2016 Exposures: Age of diagnosis, gender and anatomical location Main outcomes and measures: The incidence of skin cancer, namely, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), malignant melanoma (MM), in different tumor locations, demographic groups, and in previous years at KAUH. Results: Fifty-one patients were histologically diagnosed with skin cancer. Generally, there is a male predominance of all forms of skin cancer. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.2 years, while MM tended to occur at younger ages. BCC was found to be the most prevalent type (64.7%), followed by SCC (31.4%) and MM (3.9%). Data also revealed that the most predominant sites of skin lesions were the head and neck (78.3%). There was a single case of SCC in genitalia, and melanomas occurred only in the head and neck. Conclusion and relevance: In comparison to previous studies conducted in KAUH, our study demonstrates a stable trend of skin cancer throughout the years. However, cases in young patients showed a different trend, appearing more commonly in females rather than in males. We noted an increase of BCC cases and a minimal reduction in the prevalence of MM. However, our frequency estimates were based on histologically diagnosed skin cancer during a limited period (6 years) in comparison to that of other studies.