Functional Deep Squat Performance is Associated with Hip and Ankle Range of Motion
Objectives: To assess the associations between performance of the deep squat component of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the range of motion (ROM) of the hip, knee, ankle joints, and lumbar spine of healthy athletes.
Methods: We assessed the passive ROM of the hip, knee, ankle joints, and lumbar spine of 126 participants who underwent an injury prevention evaluation using a goniometer (extremities) or inclinometer (spine). Performance on the deep squat subtest of the FMS was evaluated by a level 1 certified FMS instructor. The ROM at each joint was then compared between participants who scored a 1, 2, and 3 on the deep squat using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests.
Results: Participants who scored a 1 on the deep squat had significantly less passive hip flexion ROM and passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM as measured by a goniometer on both the right side and left side than participants who received a 3. We also observed that those who scored a 2 demonstrated significantly less ankle dorsiflexion ROM and hip flexion ROM on the left side only compared to those who scored a 3 on the deep squat.
Conclusion: ROM of the hip and ankle joints may be one contributing factor to poor performance on the FMS deep squat. Our findings indicate that in an effort to improve functional squat performance, treatments designed to increase sagittal plane hip and ankle ROM may prove to be advantageous.