Journal of Athletic EnhancementISSN: 2324-9080

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Research Article, J Athl Enhanc Vol: 5 Issue: 3

Functional Deep Squat Performance is Associated with Hip and Ankle Range of Motion

Erin O Breen1,2, David R Howell1,3*, Dennis R Borg1, Dai Sugimoto1,3,4 and William P Meehan III1,3-5
1The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, MA, USA
2Department of Psychology, Colby College, Waterville, ME, USA
3Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
5Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Corresponding author : David Howell
The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention; 9 Hope Ave., Suite 100, Waltham, MA 02453
Tel: 781-216-2865
Fax: 781-216-3093
Received: February 25, 2016 Accepted: May 23, 2016 Published: May 30, 2016
Citation: Breen EO, Howell DR, Borg DR, Sugimoto D, Meehan WP (2016) Functional Deep Squat Performance is Associated with Hip and Ankle Range of Motion. J Athl Enhanc 5:3. doi:10.4172/2324-9080.1000227


Objectives: To assess the associations between performance of the deep squat component of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the range of motion (ROM) of the hip, knee, ankle joints, and lumbar spine of healthy athletes.

Methods: We assessed the passive ROM of the hip, knee, ankle joints, and lumbar spine of 126 participants who underwent an injury prevention evaluation using a goniometer (extremities) or inclinometer (spine). Performance on the deep squat subtest of the FMS was evaluated by a level 1 certified FMS instructor. The ROM at each joint was then compared between participants who scored a 1, 2, and 3 on the deep squat using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests.

Results: Participants who scored a 1 on the deep squat had significantly less passive hip flexion ROM and passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM as measured by a goniometer on both the right side and left side than participants who received a 3. We also observed that those who scored a 2 demonstrated significantly less ankle dorsiflexion ROM and hip flexion ROM on the left side only compared to those who scored a 3 on the deep squat.

Conclusion: ROM of the hip and ankle joints may be one contributing factor to poor performance on the FMS deep squat. Our findings indicate that in an effort to improve functional squat performance, treatments designed to increase sagittal plane hip and ankle ROM may prove to be advantageous.

Keywords: FMS; ROM; Deep knee squat; Hip; Knee; Ankle; Lumbar spine

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