Future electronics may be powered by a tiny 3D-printed battery.
Mobile devices rely on energy storage, and there is a constant desire for smaller, yet more powerful batteries. Over the years, a lot of work has gone into researching new electrode materials, electrolytes, cell topologies, and fabrication methods in order to improve the electrochemical performance of batteries while lowering manufacturing costs. Simultaneously, 3D printing is transforming our society, and the technology is rapidly improving. It is quickly becoming the foundation for next-generation futuristic 3D printed energy systems, in which batteries and super-capacitors may be printed in nearly any shape. Manufacturers have had to design their products around the size and shape of commercially available batteries, which currently occupy the majority of space in modern electronic devices. The majority of them are cylindrical or rectangular in shape and are designed for coin and bag cells. As a result, when a producer designs a product, the battery must be a specific size and shape, thus wasting space and limiting design alternatives. This is increasingly posing a design challenge for future generations of flexible electronics. lithography-based 3D printing, template-assisted electrodeposition-based 3D printing, inkjet printing, direct ink writing, fused deposition modelling, and aerosol jet printing, among others, are all examples of 3D-printed batteries using various printing techniques. The authors also go into the operating principles, printing process, benefits, and drawbacks of each 3D printing technology, as well as the printing materials for the printed batteries' electrodes and electrolytes. 3D printing is an advanced production technology that uses digitally controlled deposition of phase change and reactive materials, as well as solvent-based inks, to produce complex 3D structures. This kind of fabrication usually starts with the creation of a 3D virtual model that is then cut into many 2D horizontal cross sections with the use of specific software. A cohesive 3D object can be produced by successively printing fresh 2D layers on top of prior levels.