Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Related Conjunctival Tumours
Background: The huge burden of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with increased prevalence of malignant conjunctival tumours especially squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In Nigeria, the national HIV sero-prevalence is 3.4%, and values in the South-South geopolitical zone where this review was performed ranges from 4.1% in Delta to 10.9% in Akwa-Ibom state. Aim: To review HIV and conjunctival tumours in patients seen at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar Methodology: This retrospective clinic review of demographic data, clinical features, HIV sero-status and histopathologic findings in patients with conjunctival tumours seen from January 2005 to December 2014 including Ophthalmology clinic records and pathology request forms were analysed Results: A total of 32,102 new patients were seen in the ophthalmic outpatient within the study period, of which 108 patients comprising 57(52.8%) males and 42(38.0%) females had conjunctival tumours. Their ages ranged from 11-85 years, with a mean of 39 years ± 14.98. Histologically, eighty (74.1%) had Squamous cell carcinoma, ten (9.26%) Squamous intraepithelial lesion, six (5.56%) Papilloma, four (3.7%) Kaposis sarcoma, three (2.78%) Naevus and Melanoma each, one each (0.93%) had Conjunctival dysplasia and Lymphoma. The HIV status of only 55 (50.9%) could be ascertained having been documented in patients’ records of whom thirty-seven (67.3%) were HIV positive. Thirty four (>90%) of the HIV positive cases had squamous cell carcinoma. The other 3 patients had kaposis sarcoma, papilloma and conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN). Conclusion: In Calabar, conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma is preponderant in HIV sero-positive patients when compared with the sero-negatives.