Integrative clinical review of two phyto-agents arnica montana and calendula officinalis for treatment of injuries
Every drug has a pharmacological action that is responsible for its medicinal properties. However, there continues to be a lack of approach towards the understanding of scientific evidence of the mechanism of action regarding Homeopathic medicines which leads to a gap in standardization in Homeopathic medical practice. This review will focus on the pharmacological action of Arnica and Calendula from the Compositae family and co-relate it with the Homeopathic understanding of the remedies so stakeholders of Homeopathy and branches of traditional medicine can get a concept map of how to study drugs in their pharmacopeia.
Arnica species have been used in Homeopathy and traditional medicine to treat inflammatory related conditions and for pain relief. Detailed study demonstrates that this is due to its action on inhibition of transcription factor NF-kappa B which is a mediator of inflammation in conditions like osteoarthritis, prolapsed intervertebral disc, rheumatoid arthritis etc. Its Homeopathic applications include injuries and inflammatory conditions involving the muscles, connective tissue and joints for soreness and pain.
Similarly, Calendula in multiple studies has demonstrated anti-inflammatory action through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ) including NO (nitric oxide) as well as antibacterial activities and the capability of stimulating fibroplasia and angiogenesis. It is used extensively in Homeopathic practice internally as well locally to promote wound healing, healthy granulation tissue and prevents scars.
This study can be extended to other phyto-agents and demonstrations with in vitro and in vivo studies for further standardization.