Prevalence and associated risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in East Wollega Zonal prison, Western Oromia, Ethiopia
TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and is spread from person to person via air by droplet nuclei produced when a person with TB coughs, sneezes, talks, or sings therefore causing TB or LTBI. In 2018, there were more than 1.2 million TB deaths worldwide and an additional 251,000 deaths of TB-HIV co-infection. New TB cases reached 10 million and about 3.4% of new TB cases and 18% of previously treated cases had multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) or rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). LTBI causes persistent immune responses to mycobacterial antigens without evidence of the manifestation of clinical symptoms. It is estimated that approximately two to three billion people living in high TB burden countries are infected with MTBC bacteria. Of those, roughly 1.3 million will create dynamic TB during their lifetime. The vast majority of these patients create dynamic TB inside the initial 5 years except if they are determined and rewarded to have anti-infection drugs .WHO target of elimination of TB by 2050 and End TB Strategy by 2035 (4) could be possible only if the probability of progression LTBI to active TB e is radically decreased beneath the current lifetime danger of 5–15% .In some low-burden countries, reactivation accounts for about 80% of new cases of disease. Hence, in order to reduce the number of new TB cases, WHO adapted from the “End TB Strategy” that states, systematic screening and treatment of LTBI in at-risk populations is a critical component in the elimination of TB. One of the recommended settings to manage LTBI through screening programs is the prison environment.