Review of Clinical Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Therapy, and Results for Pancreatic Cancer
This review attempts to provide the most recent understanding of pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes, while highlighting any knowledge gaps that may serve as catalysts for additional study of this understudied cancer. A deadly disorder with an increasing incidence, pancreatic adenocarcinoma is expected to overtake lung cancer as the second biggest cause of cancer-related death in some areas. It frequently manifests at a late stage, which adds to low five-year survival rates of 2% to 9%, placing it at the bottom of the list of all cancer sites in terms of patient prognostic outcomes. For health professionals and the general public to be aware of potential preventive and/or early detection strategies, a better understanding of the risk factors and symptoms linked to this disease is crucial. It is critically necessary to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from screening to find pre-malignant diseases including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, and mucinous cystic neoplasms, but an appropriate screening test has not yet been found. With the emergence of novel surgical procedures and medical treatments such laparoscopic procedures and neo-adjuvant chemo radiotherapy, the management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is changing, however the results have only slightly improved. To get to a precision medicine future when pancreatic cancer treatment can be personalized for each patient and needless treatments that have a detrimental impact on quality of life can be avoided for others, it is desirable to identify novel biomarkers. The creation of fresh agents and delivery mechanisms must be the main focus of research activities. In general, significant progress is needed to lessen the burden brought on by pancreatic cancer. Large consortia and research into pancreatic adenocarcinoma have recently received renewed funding, which is to be applauded. However, additional streams will be required to facilitate the momentum required to produce breakthroughs seen for other cancer sites.