## Research and Reports on Mathematics

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# Structural Mathematics: Structural Thinking, Structural Planning, Structural Programing

The word “Mathematics” which derives from the Greek word “mathema= I know” was added “tique” by the French. Mathematics is considered as the first branch of science. As mathematics includes physics and the other positive sciences, it has the supremacy of “I know”. The number is defined in terms of a piece, as the first standard unit of measure. In Arabic, the words unit size, number, quantity and amount are synonyms. “How many pieces (amount) of pencils are there?” and “Do you know the number of pens?” are different uses of the same meanings. Besides, the pens may have different features of measurements or quality like short-tall, black-white, with or without an eraser. The set obtained without taking quality into consideration is the universal set of pens. As all the quantities disappear, the subject is no more concrete being transformed into units (that is, 1) and thus, becomes tangible. In the universal set, as the quantities are not taken into account, their only mutual feature is their consisting of “ones”, that is, pieces. And this provides them for being attached. 1, and plus one, and plus one, and plus one… that is how the string of counting numbers come into existence. The numbers arising from the need for determining the quantity can be accepted as the social consensus of humankind. Therefore, the mathematics gained acceptance as the common language of the universe, that is, nature. Any entire subject is considered as one, that is, one piece. The human beings have made check whether their entities are increased or decreased with symbols instead of subjects (sticks and stones and later lines). Human has also got the chance to compare, evaluate and make decisions on numbers. In a clearer sense, it has been proved that power is measurable. When any attribute is introduced, the universal set is divided into 2 sub-sets, i.e, 2 sub-sets, for those with or without such qualities. when each attribute enters the circuit, new divisions and associated subclusters are formed. The empirical sciences make this determination and measure because it will be observed and experimented to determine if any entity carries the specified qualities. After acquiring abstraction by mathematical numbers, empirical sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology have been separated from mathematics. The second social consensus provided by mathematics was after the French Revolution. All the value judgments in the society have gone to erosion and the rules of trade have been out of control. Such that: a trader buys fabric from a weaver by measuring the length of the worker's arms like a monkey, but sells it to a customer by measuring the length of the worker's arms like a duck. On top of this, the French Academy of Sciences established the MKS (Meters, Kilograms, Seconds) unit system to standardize local measures and ensure that large-scale market entry is possible. For this reason, Emperor Napoleon appointed Laplace, a mathematician, as minister of interior affairs (together with security and justice). In this way, the biggest problem of the country, the security, and judicial system, the math will cure the belief is settled. Three months later, these hopes are fading as the empire is overthrown.