Sub-acute Exposure of Fipronil Induces Biochemical and Histopathological Changes in the Liver, Kidney and Heart of Male Albino Rats
Fipronil is chemically belong to the family of phenylpyrazole insecticides and has been used in agriculture and played a role in the health and food security. It has central nervous system effects and to date case reports are available on animal fatalities and human acute intoxications. The intoxication patterns were reported to be as ingestion and dermal exposure. The present study was designed to investigate the adverse effects of sub-acute exposure to the Fipronil, on the biochemical parameters, hematological parameters, and histopathological changes of male albino rats. Experimental animals were divided into four groups; group 1 was used as control, group 2, group 3, and group 4 were gavaged with: 7.5, 15, and 25 mg/kg body weight/day of Fipronil for 28 days, respectively. After two weeks from starting the experiment the blood values of the packed cell volume PCV and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCHC were higher in group 4 than in the control (p<0.05). Furthermore, ALT and ALP serum activity and concentrations of total proteins albumin and globulin in groups 2 and 4 were higher than the control (group 1). Urea concentration in groups 3 and 4 was higher than in the other groups (p<0.05). After 4 weeks from starting the experiment there were no significant results in blood parameters. ALT and ALP serum activity and concentrations of total protein and globulin in groups 2 and 4 were higher than the control group (group 1). Albumin concentration in group 4 was lower (p<0.05) and urea concentration in groups 3 and 4 was higher (p<0.05) than the other groups. The concentration of cholesterol and creatinine did not change. The weekly gain of body weight was insignificantly changed between treatments to all groups. None of the animals died during the experiment period. Fipronil caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidney of male rats. From our results, it can be concluded that the pathological changes in liver, kidney and heart suggest a toxic effect of Fipronil to these tissues.