International Journal of Mental Health & PsychiatryISSN: 2471-4372

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Research Article, Int J Ment Health Psychiatry Vol: 2 Issue: 3

Activating of the Vocabulary as the Mode of Communication Formation

Musaeva NS*
Tashkent State Pedagogical University, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Corresponding author : Musaeva NS
Senior Researcher, Tashkent State Pedagogical University, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: March 28, 2016 Accepted: June 27, 2016 Published: July 01, 2016
Citation: Musaeva NS (2016) Activating of the Vocabulary as the Mode of Communication Formation. Int J Ment Health Psychiatry 2:3. doi:10.4172/2471-4372.1000127

Abstract

In this article, the results have been presented for the research on study of vocabulary of primary school pupils in special schools for mentally retarded children. The influence of poverty on the formation of communication skills and vocabulary of mentally retarded children has been lighted here.

Keywords: Correction; The mentally retarded; Vocabulary; Lexis; Communication

Keywords

Correction; The mentally retarded; Vocabulary; Lexis; Communication

Case Study

Speech has socio-historical nature. People have always lived and live collectively, in society. Social life and collective work of people cause the need to constantly communicate, to establish contact with each other, to react upon each other. This communication is carried out with the help of speech. Through speech people exchange thoughts and knowledge, tell about their feelings, emotions and intentions.
Speech represents historically established form of human communication through language. Being the main form of communication, providing for the preservation and transfer of experience and knowledge, the speech nevertheless is of great importance for the formation of mental processes and the whole personality of the child, for their restructuring and development.
Speech is the necessary basis of human thinking, the tool for organization of mental and practical activities and its control, as well as the emotional expression. The speech is the most universal means of communication, because during the transmission of information by means of speech the meaning of message is lost the least of all [1,2].
Fluent oral and written English speech rests primarily on possession of adequate vocabulary. The poverty of the vocabulary may hinder the communication, and hence the overall development of the child. The communication plays the special role in the mental development of children. For the child with intellectual disabilities learning the communication is of great importance. If the child is able to express his/her desires, needs, to ask for help and to respond to the words of people speaking to him, he/she will be able to enter into the big world. This ability will be the means by which he/she adapts to the world around him/her, learns to live in it. And in contrast, the richness of the vocabulary is the sign of well-developed speaking skills and the high level of mental development. The timely development of vocabulary is one of the important factors of preparation for school. Children who do not possess sufficient vocabulary, have great difficulties in learning, not finding proper words to express their thoughts [1].
The peculiarities of vocabulary of mentally defected children attracted the attention of many authors, who noted that the cognitive abnormalities make the impact on the formation of passive and active vocabulary [2].
However, the study of vocabulary in students with intellectual disabilities in the republic were not investigated, and in this regard, we have conducted preliminary study of the status of vocabulary in the mother (Uzbek) language of mentally defected students of primary school in auxiliary schools No. 25, 37, 52, 57, 66 of Tashkent city.
The objective of the study is to reveal the level of vocabulary formedness of younger mentally defected students.
To the basis of the methodology of diagnosis of children speech development, we have laid the principles of systematicity and consistency, accessibility and clarity, using pedagogical qualities such as kindness, patience and endurance, pedagogical tact and the ability to position the baby for communication. Surveys were conducted with each child individually, after establishing positive emotional contact with him/her.
The criteria for assessment of the degree of vocabulary digestion by mentally defected students were defined as “very low”, “low”, “medium”.
The study involved 190 children, 58 students from 1st class, 42 students from 2nd class, 44 students from 3rd class, 46 students from 4th class.
The examination of children with intellectual disabilities allowed establishing the picture of vocabulary formedness, to identify the level of passive and active vocabulary and to specify the volume of vocabulary of younger students. All the diagnostic tasks in their content corresponded to the age indicators of younger students, had a clear verbal instruction and demonstration material. The results of the study were recorded in the protocols of the vocabulary examination for each child. The results of examination of the vocabulary status of mentally defected students of primary school are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Vocabulary status of mentally defected students of primary school.
The students who showed very low rates were not able to answer even very basic tasks. For example, when the children were required to show the items named by the experimenter, children found difficulty in showing, many of them showed several pictures against the name of one item, the children had difficulties with the “generalized words” with the concepts: school supplies, transportation, flowers, trees, shoes, clothes. Children found difficulty in generalization of these words, for example, the items such as boots, shoes, were related to the concepts of cloths, while bus, tram and trolleybus were called as cars by the children. Also for children it was difficult to disperse their attention to several pictures simultaneously, and thus, the quickly forgot the purpose of the task. Every school has students who gave very low results, out of 190 tested students 112, that is, 59% of primary school students gave very low results.
It should be noted that, having minimal passive vocabulary, children use it rather unwillingly, at answering questions they think for a long time, come alive on the playing situation, without delving into the essence of the question, are often distracted, forgetting the instruction.
Students who have low rates were 46 students (24%) of 190. These students with the low level of vocabulary formedness coped with the tasks by trial-and error method. The children performed these tasks either after stimulating questions, or corrected themselves, but with the controlling assistance of the experimenter. The instructions were clear to the children, but the controlling actions were required. To the questions “What is it?”, “Who is it?” these students were able to answer, but the tasks requiring distinguishing color, shape, size for these students were difficult. To the questions “What is he/she doing? the students answered only after stimulating questions. They answered questions with the help of the experimenter.
Children with medium level, was able to sprawl the words relating to the nouns, adjectives, verbs; at the clarification of generalized words they could say everyday words, slightly were at loss at distinguishing poultry and seasons. 32 or 17% students of 190 showed medium level of learning.
According to the results of experiment results the following conclusions have been done that the vocabulary of mentally defected students of primary school in quantitative and qualitative terms is not sufficient. Inaccurate use of words and paraphasia are met. The predominant thing is the replacement of words by semantic similarity. Typical is the replacing of words. Mixing of words of one kind and type is observed. Passive vocabulary of mentally defected children is larger than the active one, but it is hardly actualized. It is confirmed by V. G. Petrova that mentally defected students do not know the names of many items that surround them.
The poverty of vocabulary would lead to difficulty in the formation of communication. For the formation of communication process of mentally defected students first of all it is necessary to enrich their vocabulary. If the child has rich vocabulary, it will be much easier for him to build communication with others. When establishing communications with others the child will be able to adapt to life more easily.
Development and improvement of communication skills in mentally defected child at different stages of life – from birth to adulthood – requires a lot of attention and patience from teachers, psychologists and parents. Teachers and parents should maintain the enhanced surveillance for his/het behavioral and verbal responses in all activities in order to assist and guide the development of communication skills.
The retarded children need to be communicated constantly, accompanying their actions with quiet and smooth speech with calm and friendly tone. It is required to talk more with them, naming the actions which are performed. It is required to constantly maintain attention and cognitive interest to the activity performed and to the environment.
Communication is not just saying the words. The concept “communication” involves the ability to listen and understand the ability to observe the sequence in conversation, the ability to make and maintain conversation [3].
In the lessons for speech development the child should learn not only to speak but to listen to the words of others. He/she should always be given the time for response. Before start training, it is necessary to analyze in more detail what this child already can do and to start teaching from the level, which it is best for him/her. The goal of teachers working with these children is the support of personality development of the child, his/her psychological protection and educating trust for the world.

References




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