Opinion Article, J Womens Health Vol: 12 Issue: 1
Cervical Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention
Received date: 14-February-2023, Manuscript No. JWHIC-23-94464;
Editor assigned date: 16-February-2023, PreQC No. JWHIC-23-94464 (PQ);
Reviewed date: 03-March-2023, QC No. JWHIC-23-94464;
Revised date: 10-March-2023, Manuscript No. JWHIC-23-94464 (R);
Published date: 20-March-2023 DOI: 10.4172/2325-9795.1000422.
Citation: Scari V (2023) Diagnosis and Treatment for Cervical Cancer in Women. J Womens Health 12:1.
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is the fourth most common cancer in women, with an estimated 570,000 new cases and 311,000 deaths worldwide each year. Cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable disease, but early detection is crucial.
Causes, symptoms, and prevention of cervical cancer
Causes: Cervical cancer is caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection that affects up to 80% of sexually active women at some point in their lives. Most HPV infections are harmless and go away on their own, but some types of HPV can cause abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix, which can lead to cancer over time. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include smoking, a weak immune system, long-term use of birth control pills, and a family history of cervical cancer. Healthy cells develop and multiply at a predictable rate before dying at a predictable time. The mutations cause the cells to expand and multiply uncontrollably, and they do not die. The abnormal cells that are accumulating create a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade adjacent tissues and can break away from a tumour to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.
Symptoms: In the early stages, cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms. As the cancer grows, however, it can cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain or discomfort, pain during sex, and vaginal discharge with a foul odor. These symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, so it is important to contact a healthcare provider if they have any of them.
Prevention: Cervical cancer can be prevented through vaccination, screening, and risk reduction. The HPV vaccine is recommended for girls and boys between the ages of 9 and 14 to prevent infection with the types of HPV that are most likely to cause cancer. Screening tests such as the Pap test and the HPV test can detect abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix before they develop into cancer. Women should start getting screened at age 21 and continue until age 65 or as recommended by their healthcare provider. Risk reduction strategies include practicing safe sex, quitting smoking, and maintaining a healthy immune system through exercises, a balanced diet, and stress management.
Treatment: If cervical cancer is detected, treatment options depend on the stage of the cancer and other factors such as the woman's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. In some cases, the cervix can be removed while preserving the ability to have children, but in more advanced cases, a hysterectomy may be necessary.
In conclusion, cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable disease. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and prevention strategies can help women protect themselves from this type of cancer. Regular screening tests and vaccination are important for early detection and prevention. Women should also take steps to reduce their risk by practicing safe sex, quitting smoking, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. With early detection and appropriate treatment, the prognosis for cervical cancer is generally good.