Journal of Pharmaceutics & Drug Delivery ResearchISSN: 2325-9604

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Short Communication, J Pharm Drug Deliv Res Vol: 12 Issue: 1

Drug Targeting: A Promising Approach for Precision Medicine

Kevin Kesper*

Department of Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India

*Corresponding Author: Kevin Kesper
Department of Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India

Received date: 01 January, 2023, Manuscript No. JPDDR-23-95370;

Editor assigned date: 03 January, 2023, PreQC No. JPDDR-23-95370 (PQ);

Reviewed date: 17 January, 2023, QC No. JPDDR-23-95370;

Revised date: 24 January, 2023, Manuscript No. JPDDR-23-95370 (R);

Published date: 31 January, 2023, DOI: 10. 4172/2325-9604.1000210

Citation: Kesper K (2023) Drug Targeting: A Promising Approach for Precision Medicine. J Pharm Drug Deliv Res 12:1


Drug targeting is an innovative approach in drug design and delivery that aims to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of drugs while minimizing their side effects. The main idea behind drug targeting is to selectively deliver the drug to its target site, such as a specific cell or tissue, while avoiding non-targeted areas. This approach has gained significant attention in recent years due to its potential to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs, especially in the field of precision medicine [1].

The traditional approach of drug development involves the identification of a drug molecule that can interact with a target protein or receptor to exert its therapeutic effect [2]. However, many drugs have off-target effects that can lead to undesired side effects, such as toxicity or reduced efficacy. Drug targeting overcomes this challenge by designing drug molecules that specifically bind to a target site, thus minimizing their interaction with non-targeted areas [3].

Drug targeting can be achieved through various strategies, including passive and active targeting. Passive targeting utilizes the physiological characteristics of the target site, such as its size, shape, and surface properties, to selectively accumulate the drug at the site of action [4]. For example, liposomal drug delivery systems can passively target tumor tissues by utilizing the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect, which allows for the selective accumulation of nanoparticles in tumors due to their leaky blood vessels and impaired lymphatic drainage [5].

Active targeting, on the other hand, involves the use of ligands or antibodies that can specifically bind to a receptor or antigen expressed on the surface of the target cells. This approach can increase the selectivity and specificity of drug delivery to the target site, thereby reducing off-target effects. For example, Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs) are a type of active targeting strategy that involves the conjugation of a monoclonal antibody with a cytotoxic drug. The antibody specifically binds to a target antigen on the surface of cancer cells, allowing for the selective delivery of the cytotoxic drug to the cancer cells while minimizing its interaction with normal cells [6-8].

Drug targeting has several advantages over traditional drug delivery approaches. First, it can improve the therapeutic index of drugs by increasing their selectivity and reducing their toxicity [9]. Second, it can enhance the efficacy of drugs by increasing their accumulation and retention at the target site. Third, it can reduce the frequency and dose of drug administration, thus improving patient compliance and reducing healthcare costs. Finally, it can enable the development of personalized medicine by targeting specific molecular or cellular abnormalities in individual patients.

Drug targeting has shown promising results in several therapeutic areas, including oncology, infectious diseases, and inflammatory disorders [10]. In oncology, several targeted therapies have been approved for the treatment of various types of cancer, such as trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer and imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia. In infectious diseases, drug targeting has been used to selectively deliver antiviral drugs to infected cells, such as in the case of nucleoside analogs for the treatment of HIV. In inflammatory disorders, drug targeting has been utilized to selectively inhibit the activity of inflammatory cytokines, such as in the case of anti-TNF therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.


Drug targeting is a promising approach for precision medicine that can enhance the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs. The development of novel drug targeting strategies, such as nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and gene therapy, has the potential to revolutionize the field of drug development and improve patient outcomes. However, several challenges, such as the development of robust and scalable manufacturing processes and the optimization of drug targeting efficacy and selectivity, need to be addressed to fully realize the potential of this approach.


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