Commentary, J Comput Eng Inf Technol Vol: 11 Issue: 9
Systematic Literature Review Protocol for Software Outsourcing Partnership
Department of Computer Engineering, American University School of Aruba, Oranjestad, Aruba
*Corresponding Author:Mateus Amorim
Department of Computer Engineering, American University School of Aruba, Oranjestad, Aruba
Email: [email protected]
Received date: 22 August, 2022, Manuscript No. JCEIT-22-61685;
Editor assigned date: 25 August, 2022; PreQC No. JCEIT-22-61685 (PQ);
Reviewed date: 31 August, 2022, QC No. JCEIT-22-61685;
Revised date: 16 September, 2022, Manuscript No. JCEIT-22-61685 (R);
Published date: 28 September, 2022, DOI: 10.4172/jceit.1000248.
Citation: Amorim M (2022) Systematic Literature Review Protocol for Software Outsourcing Partnership. J Comput Eng Inf Technol 11:9.
Keywords: Protocol System
Software outsourcing organizations have paid much attention to build a successful partnership between the client and vendor organizations. Several firms have established close relationships with service providers like UPS and Motorola organizations, Kodak, IBM and DEC,SDB and Hi Sun, USAA and IBM and Xerox and EDS. Organization usually establishes partnership with counterpart organization after identifying the limitation of legal contracts. Till 1990s, many software outsourcing organizations experienced difficulties in establishing and managing a successful outsourcing relationship with SPs because contractual nature of outsourcing is shifting to partnership. Software development outsourcing is a contract-based relationship between clients and vendors organizations in which client(s) contract out all or part of its software development activities to a vendor(s), who provide agreed services in return for remuneration from client organization. Software outsourcing is defined as the process of turning over all or part of (a client) organization software development activities to an external SPs. Software outsourcing is practiced from the last two decades and client in the developed countries are outsourcing their projects to the developing countries to get high quality software at low cost.
Partnership can be defined as “a tailored business relationship based upon mutual trust, openness, shared risk, and shared rewards that yield a competitive advantage, resulting in business performance greater than would be achieved by the firms individually”. Software outsourcing partnership can be defined as “an inter-organizational software development relationship between vendor and client organizations to achieve the participants shared goals” According to Kishore et al they Suggest a framework of four outsourcing relationship types (FORT). These are support, alignment, reliance, and alliance. A relationship in which ownership substitution and strategic impact is high, the relationship is characterized as an alliance. In an alliance relationship the degree of trust is considered to be high and the contractual control low. Outsourcing partnership is the form of an alliance relationship. Software outsourcing partnership is considered more beneficial as compared to contractual outsourcing relationship as contractual relationship bears a number of barriers, e.g. difficulties in writing a complete. Contract Investment from one or both parties on relation specific assets Term of contract is long Amount of contract is high many clients implement total IT outsourcing Insufficient Management of the risk associated with complex software projects in Contract. The uncertainty of IT outsourcing are increasing because of unrealistic estimation of cost, manpower requirements and time. It will be hard to apply the results because the outcome often don’t match the actual results. Partnership Relationship provides the mechanism for Protecting relations specific assets investments and promotes further investments. Sustaining long-term relationships. Dealing with uncertainty and reducing risk.
Theoretically, software development outsourcing can be viewed in literature from three different perspectives, strategic management, economic and social perspectives. Strategic management perspective is based on resource and resource dependency theories; it explains how firms implement outsourcing paradigm to achieve desired goals. However it does not consider relationship management aspect. Economic perspective is based on transaction cost and agency theories. It examines coordination, efficiency and governance of economic transactions between firms. But it does not consider factors that affect organizations having other reasons to outsource beside cost efficiency. On the other hand social perspective is based on social exchange and relational exchange theories; it focuses on relationship between the service receivers and the service providers. It is differentiated from the other perspectives by the assumption that there are shared norms and an agreement of interests between the parties and leading to considerations of the issues like trust, equity, and cooperation. In social perspective the formal contract is necessary but not sufficient for the success of outsourcing. It implies that the termination or continuation of client-vendor relationships is based on the satisfaction of the both parties. A number of studies have emphasized on the importance of relationships in software development outsourcing. The relationships between client(s) and vendor(s) organizations play a vital role in the success or failure of the outsourcing arrangement. A key to achieve benefits from IT outsourcing is maintaining positive client-vendor relationships. Building and sustaining a flexible relationship between clients and vendors of IT outsourcing services is one of the ways to create values in outsourcing. Understanding the relationship that arises in IT outsourcing is critical, since it comes about not only through the operationalization of the contract but also as a natural consequence of the resulting issues of dependency. Along with the increasing practice of IS/IT outsourcing the nature of the outsourcing is shifting from a pure contractual to the one based on relationship. Many organizations experienced difficulties in forming and managing a successful outsourcing relationship with SPs as the nature of outsourcing evolved from a contract relationship between the service receiver and provider to a partnership relationship.
System Management Services
Previous research classified the relationship between organizations into two types: transactional style relationship (develops through a formal contract in which the rules are well specified and the failure to deliver on commitments by either party is resolved through either litigation or penalty clauses in the contract). And partnership style relationship involves risk and benefit sharing, the need to view the relationship as a series of exchanges without a definite endpoint, and the need to establish a range of mechanisms to monitor and execute its operations. In terms of partnership there are two types of outsourcing. Asset Outsourcing: it involves transfer of assets such as hardware, software, and people to service providers. Service outsourcing: it involves system integration and system management services without asset transfer. The success of IT outsourcing partnership needs the six level integration to achieve sufficient communication, cooperation and control. These six levels integration include: strategic integration, tactic integration, operational integration, interpersonal integration, cultural integration and knowledge integration. There are two types of criteria for the success of outsourcing partnership Measurable criteria which include realization of goals, realization of service levels, expansion of the scope of the contract, renewal of the contract and soft criteria which includes customer satisfaction, active communication, involvement, cultural fit and trust. Systematic literature review has three main phases as described by Kitchen ham. These are planning the review, conducting the review, and reporting the review. In this paper we describe the SLR protocol which is the first phase of a systematic literature review. Prior to conduct the systematic review, we developed a review protocol. A pre-defined protocol reduces researcher bias and increases the rigor and repeatability of the review. An SLR protocol specifies the review plan and procedures by describing the details of various strategies for performing the systematic review. In particular, it defines background context for the research, the research questions, search strategy to identify the relevant literature, inclusion and exclusion criteria for selecting relevant studies, the treatment of publication quality assessment, the data extraction plan, the data synthesis plan and the methodology for extracting and synthesizing information.
Trial search string mean initial search string used in trial search. Lengthy search string mean search string obtained after combining major terms and its synonyms using Boolean operators. We will use this search string as our search term if database allow. By smaller sub string we mean search string obtained after search term breakup. As some of the databases do not allow lengthy search strings we will split the search term into smaller sub strings and will do separate search for each of these search strings. Finally we will summarize the search results by removing the redundancy. The review will be undertaken by a single researcher, who will be responsible for the data extraction. A secondary reviewer will be consulted for guidance in case of an issue regarding the data extraction. Inter-rater reliability test will be performed for validation. Critical Success Factors for establishing building partnership: Factors that play an important role in building partnership between clients and vendors in software outsourcing relationship. Critical Success Factors for upgrading existing relationship into partnership: Factors that play an important role in upgrading existing relationship between clients and vendors in software outsourcing to partnership.