Opinion Article, Biomater Med Appl Vol: 7 Issue: 1
Tissue Engineering for Bio Artificial Liver: A Revolutionary Approach
Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal, India
Received date: 22 February, 2023, Manuscript No. BMA-23-95672;
Editor assigned date: 27 February, 2023, Pre QC No. BMA-23-95672(PQ);
Reviewed date: 14 March, 2023, QC No. BMA-23-95672;
Revised date: 21 March, 2023, Manuscript No: BMA-23-95672(R);
Published date: 28 March, 2023, DOI: 10.35248/ 2577-0268.100513
Citation: Kumar R (2023) Tissue Engineering for Bio Artificial Liver: A Revolutionary Approach. Biomater Med Appl 7:1.
Liver failure is a life-threatening condition that can lead to severe consequences. Liver transplantation is considered the only effective treatment for end-stage liver diseases. However, the scarcity of donor organs, the high cost, and the risk of immune rejection limit the feasibility of this approach. Therefore, there is an urgent need for alternative therapeutic strategies. It is a rapidly growing field, has shown promising results in developing bioartificial organs to replace damaged or dysfunctional ones. In this article, we will discuss the current status of tissue engineering for bio artificial liver development and its potential applications. Tissue engineering involves combining living cells, scaffolds, and growth factors to create functional tissues and organs in vitro or in vivo. The liver is a complex organ that performs vital functions such as detoxification, metabolism, and protein synthesis. Therefore, replicating its structure and function is a challenging task. Several approaches have been proposed to engineer bio artificial liver, including cell-based, scaffold-based, and hybrid systems.
Cell-based approaches involve seeding liver cells, such as hepatocytes, onto biocompatible scaffolds or matrices. These scaffolds provide structural support and allow the cells to grow and differentiate into functional tissue. However, hepatocytes have limited proliferation capacity and tend to lose their phenotype and function in vitro.Therefore, the development of stable and functional hepatocyte cell lines is important to overcome these limitations. Several studies have reported the successful use of hepatocyte cell lines, such as HepaRG, for bio artificial liver development. These cell lines exhibit high proliferation and differentiation capacity, making them suitable for large-scale production.
Scaffold-based approaches involve creating a three-dimensional (3D) structure that mimics the natural architecture of the liver. These scaffolds can be made from natural or synthetic materials and can be designed to provide mechanical and biochemical cues that promote cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. The use of decellularized liver matrices has gained increasing attention in recent years. Decellularization involves removing the cellular components of the liver while preserving the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) structure. The resulting ECM provides a natural scaffold for cell attachment and promotes liver-specific functions.
Hybrid approaches combine cell-based and scaffold-based strategies to produce a functional bio artificial liver. These systems involve seeding hepatocytes onto scaffolds, followed by the implantation of the construct into the host. The hepatocytes can then integrate into the host liver and perform liver-specific functions. The use of vascularized scaffolds has been proposed to enhance cell survival and function. These scaffolds can mimic the natural blood vessel network of the liver and provide oxygen and nutrients to the implanted cells.
The development of bio artificial liver has significant implications in the field of liver disease treatment. These systems can provide a bridge to transplant for patients with acute liver failure and allow for long-term therapy for patients with chronic liver disease. Bio artificial liver can also be used in drug toxicity screening, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine. The use of patient-specific cells in bio artificial liver development can overcome the issue of immune rejection and allow for personalized therapy.
Despite the significant progress in tissue engineering for bio artificial liver development, several challenges need to be addressed. One of the major limitations is the low cell viability and function in vitro and in vivo . Improving cell survival and function remains a significant hurdle that needs to be overcome. The development of stable and functional hepatocyte cell lines and the use of advanced biomaterials can aid in addressing this issue. Another challenge is the lack of a suitable animal model that can mimic the human liver's complex architecture.