Opinion Article, Endocrinol Diabetes Res Vol: 9 Issue: 1
Types, Symptoms and its Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus
Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, USA
Received date: 02 February, 2023, Manuscript No. ECDR-23-91990;
Editor assigned date: 06 February, 2023; PreQC No. ECDR-23-91990 (PQ);
Reviewed date: 20 February, 2023, QC No. ECDR-23-91990;
Revised date: 27 February, 2023, Manuscript No. ECDR-23-91990 (R);
Published date: 06 March, 2023, DOI: 10.35248/ 2470-7570.100322.
Citation: George R (2023) Types, Symptoms and its Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus. Endocrinol Diabetes Res 9:1.
Diabetes Mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a prevalent disease that affects millions of people worldwide, and its incidence is increasing rapidly, especially in developed countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that diabetes affects approximately 422 million adults worldwide, with the number expected to rise to 642 million by 2040.
There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile-onset diabetes, is an autoimmune disorder that occurs when the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas. This results in a complete deficiency of insulin, which is a hormone that regulates glucose metabolism in the body. Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can occur at any age. Type 2 diabetes, also known as adultonset diabetes, is the most common type of diabetes and is caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. In type 2 diabetes, the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or does not produce enough insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed in adults over the age of 40, although it is increasingly being diagnosed in children and young adults. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy and is caused by hormonal changes that affect insulin sensitivity. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after delivery, but women who develop gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus
The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the type of diabetes and the severity of the disease. However, common symptoms include increased thirst and urination, Fatigue and weakness, Blurred vision, Slow healing of wounds and infections, Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet, Unexplained weight loss or gain, Increased hunger, Dry mouth and skin, Complications of Diabetes Mellitus: People with diabetes are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, including heart attack, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, and people with diabetes are at increased risk of developing kidney disease. Diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina, leading to diabetic retinopathy, which can result in blindness if left untreated. Diabetes can cause damage to the nerves, leading to peripheral neuropathy, which can cause tingling, numbness, and pain in the hands and feet. Diabetes can cause poor blood flow to the feet, leading to foot ulcers and infections that can lead to amputation. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus typically involves a blood test to measure fasting blood glucose levels. Additional tests may be required to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of diabetes. Treatment of diabetes mellitus typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medication, such as insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. While there is no guaranteed way to prevent diabetes, lifestyle changes such as regular physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight, and consuming a healthy diet can help reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Additionally, regular monitoring of blood glucose levels and regular medical check-ups can help detect and manage diabetes early.