Journal of Applied Bioinformatics & Computational BiologyISSN: 2329-9533

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Opinion Article, J Appl Bioinforma Comput Biol Vol: 11 Issue: 2

Understanding the Human Immune System through Systems Biology

Rothballer Nussbaumer *

Department of Biomedical Science, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

*Corresponding author: Rothballer Nussbaumer
Department of Biomedical Science, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Received date: 19 January, 2022, Manuscript No. JABCB-22-58010;

Editor assigned date: 21 January, 2022, PreQC No. JABCB-22-58010 (PQ);

Reviewed date: 04 February, 2022, QC No. JABCB-22-58010;

Revised date: 11 February, 2022, Manuscript No. JABCB-22-58010 (R);

Published date: 18 February, 2022, DOI: 10.4172/2329-9533.2022.11(2).1000219

Citation: Nussbaumer R (2022) Understanding the Human Immune System through Systems Biology. J Appl Bioinforma Comput Biol 11:2.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Immune System


Systems biology has been answerable for a number of the foremost necessary developments within the science of human health and environmental property. It’s a holistic approach to deciphering the complexness of biological systems that starts from the understanding that the networks that type the complete of living organisms are quite the total of their components. It’s cooperative, integration several scientific disciplines biology, engineering, engineering, bioinformatics, physics to predict however these systems modification over time and below variable conditions, and to develop solutions to the world’s most pressing health and environmental problems. This ability to style prognostic, multi scale models permits our scientists to find new biomarkers for illness, stratify patients supported distinctive genetic profiles, and target medicine and different treatments. Systems biology, ultimately, creates the potential for entirely new styles of exploration, and drives constant innovation in biology based technology and computation. Because systems biology needs constant attention to an awfully complicated, terribly human social experiment, ISB fosters the sort of economic, social and psychological setting within which the world’s best scientists, technologists, engineers and mathematicians will collaborate and do their best work.

A basic religious doctrine of systems biology is that finding difficult biological issues perpetually needs the event of recent technologies so as to explore new dimensions of information house. New knowledge sorts need novel analytical tools. This virtuous cycle of biology driving technology driving computation will exist solely during a cross-disciplinary setting wherever biologists, chemists, pc scientists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, physicians will close in groups to tackle grand challenges. This is often ISB. And this describes what we tend to decision the innovation engine that drives our ability to develop property, which we tend to share through openaccess platforms or by spinning out corporations.

In describing systems biology and also the distinctive characteristics of ISB’s approach, we tend to perpetually emphasize however our research lab teams are by design and essentially crossdisciplinary. One in every of our labs, as an example, includes molecular biologists, microbiologists, geneticists, engineers, oceanographers, associate in nursing even an urologist. The complexness of biology during this age of big data needs various groups so as to tackle such large amounts of information and to create sense of it all. New technologies that crunch knowledge quicker and additional expeditiously additionally allow researchers to re-analyze existing datasets, a method which frequently reveals undiscovered info. Complementary skills empower any of our teams of researchers to higher perceive biological or environmental challenges from totally different views and to gain shareable insights additional quickly. Our knowledge base groups have contributed notable advances to everything from ocean action to neurodegenerative diseases and infectious disease to multiple cancers.

With networks, we are able to organize and integrate info at totally different levels. Social networks have reworked communications within the twenty first Century, democratizing our platforms for communications. At ISB we tend to are involved with networks. One in every of the tenets of systems biology we regularly confer with is that the “Network of Networks.” On a biological level, our bodies are created of several networks that are integrated at and human action on multiple scales. From our ordination to the molecules and cells that makeup the organs in our bodies all the answer to ourselves in our world: we tend to are basically a network of networks. Systems biology appearance at these networks across scales to integrate behaviors at totally different levels, to formulate hypotheses for biological operate and to supply special and temporal insights into propellant biological changes. It’s not enough to grasp just one a part of a system once finding out the complexness of biology. So the framework of the “Network of Networks” provides purposeful insight into understanding however systems biology’s approach is totally different, additional integrated and additional capable of analyzing and predicting state transitions in biological systems.

Multi Scale Modeling

Whether we tend to expressly acknowledge it or not, multi scale phenomena are a part of our daily lives. We tend to organize our time in days, months and years, as results of the multi scale dynamics of the system. Our society is organized during a hierarchical data structure, from cities to states, countries and continents. The physical structure may be a complicated machine, with several very little components that job by themselves or with different components to perform specific functions. Organelles within every cell in our bodies act with each other to keep up a healthy functioning cell that moves, differentiates and dies. These subcellular organelles and their processes govern every cell’s signaling mechanism to act with its neighboring cells, and type multi-cellular systems known as tissues. Additional kinds of tissues work along to make associate in nursing organ that performs a particular task. Additional organs work along to make organ systems, like the system and also the system, which perform additional complicated tasks of this organ systems act with one another to alter a healthy functioning organism. Ancient approaches to modeling world systems concentrate on one scale that imparts a restricted understanding of the system. The pace at that biotechnology has mature has enabled United States to gather massive volumes of information capturing behavior at multiple scales of a biological system. Genetic also as environmental alterations to the polymer, expression levels of RNAs, expression of genes and synthesis of proteins all this is often measurable currently at intervals a matter of days at a quickly declining value. So, it's extremely up to scientists and knowledge analysts to create use of this style of knowledge sorts and build integrative models that alter a comprehensive below standing of the system under study. Multi scale models do exactly that. By integration models at totally different scales and permitting flow of knowledge between them, multi scale models describe a system in its entireness, and intrinsic to the principles of systems biology.

Single Cell Analysis

It is acknowledge that there's no “average” patient. Therefore, in clinical trials encompassing massive teams of patients, one must take into account the characteristics of every patient, as well as every person’s individual genetic propensity to retort to a drug during an explicit approach. The applied math analysis of population averages suppresses valuable individual-specific info. The thought of population no uniformity because of inevitable patient-to-patient variability is named stratification and is at the guts of personalized drugs. Such stratification can permit a correct resistivity match against acceptable and effective medicine. Every cell during a cell population of apparently identical cells may be a distinct individual. There’s no average cell even at intervals a population of cells of the exact same cell kind. Even as one will inspect individual patients during a population and determine subtypes of diseases, one will determine quantized or discrete cell-subtypes during a cell population. The measure subtypes perform totally different functions and type a network very similar to a social network in human populations. Thus understanding however associate in nursing organ works would force understanding the coordinated integration of the functioning of all the measure cell sorts. Owing to such cellular no uniformity, even the foremost potent target-selective drug can kill solely a fraction of tumor cells explaining the inexorable drug resistance in malignant tumors. This new insight on cellular no uniformity necessitate the measure of all molecular profiles in individual cells. Tissues should be seen not as associate in nursing amorphous mass however analyzed as propellant populations of cells and at single-cell resolution.

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