The Journal of Athletic Enhancement (JAE) addresses the aspects of enhancement process, use of performance-enhancing substances, psychological and physical health of the athlete; rehabilitate injuries related to sport or recreational activity. JAE also promotes rigorous research that makes a significant contribution in advancing knowledge for athletic enhancement issues, development of health and social problems.
Athletic Enhancement is a subscription based journal that provides a range of options to purchase our articles and also permits unlimited Internet Access to complete Journal content. It accepts research, review papers, online letters to the editors & brief comments on previously published articles or other relevant findings in SciTechnol. Articles submitted by authors are evaluated by a group of peer review experts in the field and ensures that the published articles are of high quality, reflect solid scholarship in their fields, and that the information they contain is accurate and reliable.
Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Elite Indian National Football Players
The characteristics of professional footballers have been well documented however, research into elite Asian particularly Indian players, remains relatively unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of elite Indian footballers and compare the results according to outfield playing positions.Football is the most popular sport globally and there is a growing interest for this sport in India. However, the Indian national team is currently ranked 147 of 207 according to the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). This ranking suggests that Indian playing standards need to be improved through a focus on the three key areas of physical, technical and tactical skills, as they have been reported to being related to successful football performance.
Are Aerobic Fitness and Repeated Sprint Ability Linked to Fatigue in Professional Soccer Match-Play? A Pilot Study
In professional soccer, a strong relationship has been observed between measures of physical fitness derived from tests of repeated sprint ability, intermittent endurance and aerobic capacity and running performance in competition determined from time motion analyses data. Unfortunately, these studies have generally only examined associations with ‘overall’ time motion measures of running performance such as the total distance run or that covered in sprinting. The potential relationship between fitness scores and declines in competitive physical performance in professional soccer players has up to now not received any attention despite the comprehensive body of research from time motion analyses that has indirectly demonstrated the existence of fatigue during matchplay. To our knowledge, only two studies, both conducted in elite youth soccer players, have addressed this gap in the literature. In the former for example, despite a significant association between intermittent-endurance fitness (Yo-Yo IR1 test) and overall distance covered in high-intensity activity, no relationship was observed between fitness measures and first- vs. second-half decrements in running distance.
The Influence of Different Sources of Polyphenols on Sub- Maximal Cycling and Time Trial Performance
The primary purpose of the study was to establish the effects of commercially available polyphenol-rich antioxidant supplements, Pycnogenol® with added bioflavonoids (PYC-B) and CherryActive (CHA), on 20 km cycling performance. Using a double-blind counterbalanced, repeated-measures design, nine male cyclists or triathletes (32.1 ± 11.2 years; maximal aerobic capacity 4.2 ± 0.7 L•min-1; maximal power output 391.7 ± 39.5 watts) consumed 200 mg of CHA, 120 mg of PYC-B, or 200 mg of placebo (PLA) capsules, 2 days before and on the day of each experimental trial. The experimental trials consisted of four 5 minute stages at 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% maximal power output (Wmax), followed by a 20 km time trial (TT). Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between trials for heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, gross mechanical efficiency, oxygen consumption, or blood lactate, at any of the intensities completed during the initial 20 minute phase of the trial (p>0.05). Final 20 km TT times were not significantly different between trials (p=0.115), but, compared to PLA, PYC-B did significantly increase power output by 6.2% over the final 5 km of the TT (p=0.022). The study suggests that the PYC-B supplement could be beneficial towards the end of an intense bout of cycling exercise. However, as total 20 km time was not significantly different between trials the doses used are unlikely
to benefit 20 km cycling time trial performance.
Preparation Program of the Youngest Top 100 Tennis Player: The Training Concepts and Principles
Conditioning preparation plays a key role in tennis. Typical microcyles and training session examples, together with main concepts and principles, are shown and explained in this paper. A very comprehensive array of anthropological and blood– producing system measures is also presented. Immediately after the preparation period, the young female tennis player achieved the greatest success in her career by playing in the finals of WTA tournament in Tashkent, Uzbekistan achieving the best placement in her career by becoming one of the world's top 100 female tennis players, and being the youngest one among them.
No Differences in Kinetics between the Squat Jump, Push Press and Mid-Thigh Power Clean
The aim of this investigation was to determine the differences in kinetic data during the mid-thigh power clean, squat jump and push press. Trained individuals (n=11; age 23 ± 3.5 yrs; height 176.5 ± 5.56 cm; body mass 85.78 ± 14.29 kg) performed 1 set of 3 repetitions of the mid-thigh power cleans, squat jumps and push press, using 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) power clean, in a randomized order, while standing on a force platform. Peak vertical ground reaction forces (Fz), instantaneous rate of force development (RFD) and peak power output were compared between exercises, using a one way analysis of variance. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in peak Fz, RFD or peak power output between exercises, although the greatest Fz and RFD were observed during the mid-thigh power clean, and the highest peak power was observed in the squat jump. From the findings of this study the peak Fz, RFD and peak power during the mid-thigh power clean, squat jump and push press, performed using 60% 1RM power clean, are comparable. If the focus of training is rapid force production under high load then the exercise that permits the greatest loading should be used, which is likely to be the squat jump.
The Use of an Indoor Rowing Ergometer Test for the Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Uptake
based version of the multi stage fitness test.Methods: Forty one participants (25 men, 16 women; mean ± SD; age 21 ± 5.3 years, height 175.4 ± 8.1cm, body mass 71.4 ± 12.6 kg) completed in a counter-balanced design: a treadmill running maximal oxygen uptake test (Treadmill - VO2max), a 2,000 m timed
row and an incremental rowing maximal oxygen uptake test (IRT - VO2max) where stroke rate was increased by one stroke each minute. A student’s paired sample t-test was used to determine differences in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and heart rate (HRmax) and a Pearson correlation coefficient to measure the relationships between VO2 during tests. Results: VO2max values were significantly higher in treadmill - VO2max (44.7 ± 6.5 ml•kg-1•min-1) than IRT - VO2max (42.2 ± 7.3 ml•kg-1•min-1; P<0.05). Maximum heart rate was significantly higher during the treadmill - VO2max (192 ± 10 beats.min-1) compared to the IRT - VO2max (184.3 ± 10.6 beats.min-1; P<0.05). A significant correlation was observed between treadmill - VO2max and the IRT - VO2max for VO2 (r=0.67). Gender specific linear regression equations were created to predict VO2max on the IRT from submaximal data (Males: Predicted VO2max (ml•kg-1•min-1)=2.30 (x) + 20.8, SEE=4.5; Females Predicted VO2max (ml•kg-1•min-1)=1.93(x) + 19.4, SEE=3.7). Conclusion: This new stroke rate based IRT provides a continuous test to exhaustion with minimal equipment which is suitable for the regular gym user to monitor their cardiorespiratory fitness.