Journal of Athletic Enhancement (JAE) is a bi-monthly, peer-reviewed scholarly journal which publishes the most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in the interdisciplinary areas of sport science & medicine. JAE is an online Hybrid Model journal which offers authors a choice in publishing their research through subscription as well as open access for high visibility, unlimited access, usage, increased citations.
Athletics is simply an assemblage of various sporting events or physical events. Athletes depend on accuracy, precision and power giving them synchronized muscular contractions. Increasing strength and power production is a common goal for sports persons in competitions.
Journal of Athletic Enhancement primarily focuses on the topics: sporting events, performance enhancement, sport medicine, athletic training, exercise sciences, psychological and physical health of the athlete, sport injuries and rehabilitation,physiotherapy, athletic physiology and nutrition of athletes. Any other material of sport discipline and relevance will also be considered.
The Journal is using Editorial Manager System for quality and quick review process. Editorial Manager is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking systems. Review processing is performed by the Editorial Board of the Journal or outside experts in the field; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.
Quantitative Assessment of Glenohumeral Translation in Professional Golfers Using Ultrasound
Posterior hyper laxity of the glenohumeral joint could contribute to shoulder problems in golfers; hence, a measuring tool to quantify glenohumeral laxity clinically is important. Objective: Assess within-session intra-rater reliability of using Ultrasound to measure glenohumeral laxity, and quantify glenohumeral joint translation in symptom free elite golfers and non overhead athlete controls. Study design: Descriptive laboratory study. Ultrasound Scanning measured humeral head translation during the Drawer test in 30 asymptomatic professional golfers recruited on the PGA European Challenge Tour, and 10, asymptomatic, non overhead male athlete controls, all male and under the age of 40 years. Within-session intra-rater reliability coefficients (Intraclass correlation ICC3.1) were moderate to good, with scores of more than 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.94) for the technique and instrumentation used. Posterior translation of the humeral head was 1.29 mm greater in golfers in the non dominant/lead shoulder compared with controls. This was statistically significant when p=0.01(Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion: Real Time Ultrasound Scanning is a reliable method of assessing posterior glenohumeral laxity in golfers. Posterior translation of the humeral head was greater in golfers in the non dominant/lead shoulder compared with controls.
Group Randomized Trial of a Novel Physical Education Program to Increase Physical Fitness and Motor Skills in Children
The aims of the present pilot study are three-fold, (a) to test the efficacy of the intervention by comparing schools allocated to the interventions vs. control school and (b) to investigate whether an elementary school based, structured physical education program could improve physical fitness and motor skill performance and decrease adiposity in children, (c) to examine the physiological health effects, and motor skill improvement, in an 8-week teacher lead novel school based physical activity intervention compared to a physical education specialist group. Methods: 8-week single blinded group randomized trial, 224 children (age 9.93 ± 2.09) were randomly assigned to 1) Control (C; n= 47); 2) Teacher Led (TL; n=76), or 3) Physical Education specialist led (PESL; n=94). TL and the PESL groups received 100 minutes of physical activity per week, and C received standard curriculum. Movement skills, physical Fitness, BMI percentiles and waist/hip circumference were measured pre and post intervention. ANCOVA with post-hoc pair wise comparisons assessed across intervention group effects. Results: A significant overall intervention effect was found for trunk lift (P<0.01), sit and reach (P<0.01), kick (P=0.008), ball bounce (P=0.007), leap (P=0.004), punt (P<0.001), and Two - hand strike (P=0.039). Conclusion: The program appears promising as a populationbased approach to increasing physical fitness and enhancing motor skills performance in children.
Electromyographic Activation Patterns during Handball Throwing By Experts and Novices
Knowledge of the electromyographic (EMG) activation pattern during an athletic movement, as well as its difference between experts and novices, are helpful in providing appropriate technical instructions, strength training, and injury prevention protocols. This study aimed to compare the timing and intensity EMG activation pattern of experts and novices during the handball standing throw. Surface EMG recordings were taken for the trapezius, pectoralis major, triceps brachii, and biceps brachii muscles. In synchronization with EMG recordings, trials were video recorded to determine the timing of the throwing phases (tcocking, tacceleration, tfollow through). The throw with the greater ball velocity was selected for further analysis. The significance of group differences was examined with t-tests for independent samples. ANOVAs, for repeated measures, were applied for the differences among muscles and across throwing phases. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all analyses (SPSS version 21.0). The ball throwing velocity and throwing accuracy were significantly better in experts than novices (p ≤ 0.05). No significant group difference was found for the timing of throwing phases and the timing EMG activation (p>0.05). The experts showed increased intensity of EMG activation for the trapezius and the pectoralis major muscles during tcocking, with the group difference being reversed during tacceleration (p ≤ 0.05). The group invariance in the timing pattern of throwing phases and EMG activation possibly suggests that the throwing pattern is acquired early in the learning process. The differences in the intensity pattern of EMG activation probably highlight the insufficiency of the novices to optimally store elastic energy during tcocking. Thus, from the early stages of training, care should be focused on the achievement of an optimal tcocking.
The Contribution of the Rectus Femoris to Hip Flexion
The rectus femoris is a bi-articular muscle, which crosses the hip and knee joints. Its’ actions at the knee are well documented and have been known since the early 1900s. The work of the rectus femoris at the hip has received less attention and the extent to which it flexes the hip is uncertain. Detailed information regarding rectus femoris actions at the hip could have considerable benefits. Strength and fitness trainers could find the information useful in designing workout regimens, and clinicians would benefit when planning rehabilitation programs, particularly with patients displaying pelvic tilt issues. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of selected combinations of knee and hip joint angles on
the hip flexor function of the rectus femoris. Methods: The rectus femoris of 16 subjects was stimulated via surface electrodes across 16 knee and hip joint combinations. The isometric torque produced before, during and after each of three stimulations at each joint combination was recorded with an Isokinetic dynamometer. Results: The knee joint angle significantly influenced the rectus femoris’ hip flexion moments of force. The effect was linear with a greater flexion moment of force arising as the knee angle moved from 0 to 90 degrees. The hip flexion force was greatest with the knee joint flexed to 90 degrees across all hip joint angles. The mean hip flexion moment of force for 0 and 30 degree knee angles was 10.90 (+5.1) Nm, increasing to 13.87 (+5.5) Nm for the 60 and 90 degree knee angles. Conclusion: The 60 and 90 degrees of knee flexion produced the longest rectus femoris length and the greatest hip flexion moments of force for this muscle. The angle of the hip did not significantly increase the hip flexion moments of force for the rectus femoris during stimulation, but became a significant factor when the stimulation was absent.
Multiple Sprint Exercise with a Short Deceleration Induces Muscle Damage and Performance Impairment in Young, Physically Active Males
The purpose of the present study was to identify whether a bout of high-intensity multiple sprints elicits exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) of a similar magnitude to drop jumps. Methods: Ten physically active male volunteers (mean ± SD; 27 ± 3 y, 1.78 ± 0.06 m, 78.4 ± 7.5 kg) completed 10×10 drop jumps (DRP) and a bout of 40×15 m sprints with a 5 m deceleration zone (SPR) in a randomised repeated-measures crossover study. Muscle damage indices (creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), perceptual soreness and affective valence, range of motion and limb girth) and performance markers (vertical jump, agility and sprint performance) were gathered at baseline and 1, 24, 48 and 72 h post exercise. Results: The study findings revealed a significant Test by Time interaction for 15 m sprint performance (P<0.05), with a greater decrement in performance observed following SPR (~4%) compared to DRP (~1%). A significant main effect for Time for CK and AST activity, perceptual soreness, affective valence, limb girth, vertical jump and agility performance (P<0.05) was also revealed, although no Test by Time interaction was observed (P>0.05). Conclusion: This study indicates that a bout of multiple sprints with a short deceleration phase elicits greater reductions in sprint performance than drop jumps. This should be considered by individuals using similar sprint protocols in an applied context and by individuals looking to conduct research into EIMD using ecologically valid exercise protocols.
A Case Study of Two National Standard Sprinters Completing a Pose and Traditional Sprint Start
The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic and kinetic differences between two elite sprinters completing a traditional and Pose sprint start. A traditional start technique teaches driving out of the starting blocks whereas the Pose start teaches pulling the hands from the ground first and then immediately pulling the back foot out of the starting block towards the buttocks. The findings indicated both starts showed maximal starting block force occurred before the hands left the ground, except for the front foot vertical force in the Pose start. Both sprint starts showed a proximal-to-distal lower limb muscle activation for the back leg during the starting block phase. The Pose start had less time when muscles were active during the starting block phase and showed an increased back leg knee angular extension-flexion velocity. Finally, significantly greater horizontal displacement after 1 s was achieved by the Pose start.
Quadriceps Muscle Oxygen Availability between Highly- Ranked and Club Sailors during Successive Simulated Hiking Bouts
Reports indicate that top-class compared to less welltrained sailors demonstrate greater hiking abilities by sustaining greater fractions of their maximum quadriceps muscle strength. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which central hemodynamic and local muscle capacities for oxygen transport and extraction are superior in highly-ranked compared to less well-ranked sailors. Six highly-ranked and six club sailors performed 3 successive 2-min hiking bouts followed by a 4th bout to exhaustion. Vastus lateralis muscle deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (an index of local muscle oxygen extraction) was measured by Near- Infrared Spectroscopy, whereas cardiac output was determined using impedance cardiography. Six highly-ranked and six club sailors performed 3 successive 2-min hiking bouts followed by a 4th bout to exhaustion. Vastus lateralis muscle deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (an index of local muscle oxygen extraction) was measured by Near- Infrared Spectroscopy, whereas cardiac output was determined using impedance cardiography. Highly-ranked sailors exhibit superior cardiovascular and quadriceps muscle oxygen utilization capacities. Such superior central and peripheral muscle capacities for oxygen transport and utilization may explain why highly-ranked sailors demonstrate advanced hiking ability.