Nanomaterial Approaches for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19: A Paradigm Shift
The global impact of the 2019 novel coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2)) that emerged in Wuhan, China is alarming due to its rapid spread to 203 countries and territories by April 2020. To date, 14,909,279 individuals have been infected which has claimed 614471 lives. Although originating in animals, the virus has adapted a human-to-human mode of transmission presently which has challenged all existing antiviral therapies. Unfortunately, no drug or vaccine has yet been approved to treat COVID-19 because available therapeutics like monoclonal antibodies, oligonucleotide-based therapies, peptides, interferon therapies and small-molecule drugs might not effectively target the virus and take too long to develop. Hence, it is likely that it will take at least a year before treatment (e.g., a vaccine) becomes available, which is distressing. Herein, we present the first nanoscale alternatives (including one of the most successful nanomedicines developed by Moderna) for the effective control and containment of COVID-19 considering the urgency of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.