Risk Factors associated with the Presence of Anti-Treponema pallidum Antibodies in Men HIV Patients a Case Control Study
Background: Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are similarly transmitted and commonly coexist. HIV affects the natural history, clinical manifestations, and treatment response to syphilis. The study goal was to determine the risk factors associated with a positive anti-Treponema pallidum antibody test in HIV-infected patients.
Methods: A case-control study was conducted from August to December 2014 in an infectious diseases care hospital in Mexico City. Cases were males over 18 years, with HIV diagnosis and positive for syphilis antibodies. Controls were similar except with a negative syphilis antibodies test. All patients provided characteristics and medical records were accessed.
Results: Of 360 patients (120 cases, 240 controls), 304 were men who have sex with men. Mean ages were 34 years for cases and 36 years for controls. Risk factors associated with positive anti-Treponema pallidum antibody in multivariate analysis were hepatitis B (odds ratio [OR], 4.44 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-13.31]; P=0.008) and being a drug user (OR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.27-3.42]; P=0.003).
Conclusions: Mandatory screening for anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies among HIV-infected patients, both at diagnosis and periodically while risk factors persist or appear during disease progression may help to reduce HIV transmission.