Expert Opinion on Environmental BiologyISSN: 2325-9655

Reach Us +1 850 754 6199
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Research Article, Expert Opin Environ Biol Vol: 4 Issue: 2

Burden of Marble Factories and Health Risk Assessment of Kidney (renal) Stones Development in District Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Jehangir Khan1*, Zeshan Amin1, Bakht Tarin Khan1, Faiz-Ur-Rehman2, Zaheer Ahmad1and Waqas Ahmad Shams1
1Zoology Department, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan (AWKUM), Bunir Campus, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan
2Zoology Department, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat(KUST), KPK, Pakistan
Corresponding author : Jehangir Khan
Zoology Department, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan (AWKUM), Bunir Campus, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan,
Tel: +923334399893; Fax: +0939555438
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: March 16, 2015 Accepted: March 28, 2015 Published: April 03, 2015
Citation: Jehangir K, Zeshan A, Bakht TK, Faiz UR, Zaheer Ahmad, et al. (2015) Burden of Marble Factories and Health Risk Assessment of Kidney (renal) Stones Development in District Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Expert Opin Environ Biol 4:2. doi:10.4172/2325-9655.1000115

Abstract

Burden of Marble Factories and Health Risk Assessment of Kidney (renal) Stones Development in District Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Objective: The marble industry?s disposal, consisting of very fine powder, is becoming one of the environmental problems around the world. The current study was proposed to evaluate health (incidences of kidney stones) risk assessment that might result from marble industries in district Buner. Method: A three months survey was done from August- October 2014 in district Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). Different health care centers were visited for sampling purpose. Results: A total of 1000 individuals, exposed to marble effluents (contaminated water), suffering from kidney stones including males and females in a ratio (M: F is 2.33:1) were observed. The individuals having age of 26-40 years suffered 74% infection of urolithiasis followed by 41-60 years (20%), and lowest rate of kidney infections was observed in 15-25 years individuals. The Tehsil Daggar has highest number (390: 65%) of marble industries as compared to Tehsil Gagra (210: 35%). Similarly, the kidney infection rate was high in Daggar (560: 56%) as compared to Gagra (440: 44%). The most common symptom of kidney infection observed was pain (94%) followed by urinary bladder infection (80%) and Anemia (78%).

Keywords: Marble factory; Effluents; Kidney stone; Symptom; Risk assessment

Track Your Manuscript

Share This Page