Journal of Fashion Technology & Textile EngineeringISSN: 2329-9568

Reach Us +1 850 754 6199
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Research Article, J Fashion Technol Textile Eng Vol: 2 Issue: 2

Assessing Colour Fastness Property of Batiks Dyed with Vat Dyes in Ghana

Aba Akebi Atta-Eyison1, Emmanuel Rexford Kodwo Amissah2* and Bernard Edem Dzramedo3
1School of Applied Art, Department of Textiles, Takoradi Polytechnic, Ghana
2Department of Art Education, School of Creative Arts, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana
3Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, University for Development Studies, Ghana
Corresponding author : Emmanuel Rexford Kodwo Amissah
Department of Art Education, School of Creative Arts, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana
E-mail: [email protected]
Received June 20, 2013 Accepted September 04, 2014 Published September 08, 2014
Citation: Eyison AAA, Amissah ERK, Dzramedo BE (2014) Assessing Colour Fastness Property of Batiks Dyed with Vat Dyes in Ghana. J Fashion Technol Textile Eng 2:2.doi:10.4172/2329-9568.1000111

Abstract

Assessing Colour Fastness Property of Batiks Dyed with Vat Dyes in Ghana

TThe batik Industry in Ghana has not lived to its full potential due to shortcomings that include the colour fastness of fabrics available on the market. Most batik producers are inconsistent with parameters used in the production of these batiks. To most, achieving the batik effect is enough since there are really no means of assessing whether they meet set quality standard.The objective of this study was to produce batiks using consistent production parameters and test the colour fastness of batiks produced.The research was based on qualitative and quantitative research approaches which used experimental and descriptive methods. Dyeing was conducted to produce batik samples. Colour fastness tests to washing, rubbing and light were conducted on dyed samples.The study revealed that- batiks dyed with vat dyes had good colour fastness. It could be concluded based on the findings that high quality batiks with good colour fastness can be produced if the parameters are set right. This will help improve the sub-standard batik works produced by batik producers in the region and Ghana as a whole.

Keywords: Colour fastness; Vat dye; Dyeing; Parameters and Dye auxiliaries; Omo (standard detergent commonly used in Ghana); Batik

Keywords

Colour fastness; Vat dye; Dyeing; Parameters and Dye auxiliaries; Omo (standard detergent commonly used in Ghana); Batik

Introduction

Colour is the most important characteristic in the apparel and furnishing of items and is a significant factor in the apparel and marketability of textile product. Colour is the most exciting element of design. It is what catches ones attention and sets the stage for clothes selecting. It is the most personal and important aspect of fashion in determining a well-dressed appearance [1,2].
Research revealed that consumers of textile and apparel products first response is to colour before they consider the design, feel of the garment and then the prices. The goal of adding colour to textiles is to produce a garment with an appealing, level, fast colour product at a reasonable price with good performance and minimal environmental impact [1,3].
Highly coloured substances known as colourants can be used to impact colour to an infinite variety of materials. Colourants can be subdivided into dyes and dyeing is a common application used for colouring fibres; it is called staining in the case of biological materials [4]- Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (2009), defined dyeing as a process of colouring textile fibres, yarns or fabrics so that the colouring matter becomes an internal part of the material rather than a surface coating.
Dyes are therefore compounds that penetrate and colour fibres and the art of dyeing can be done at various stages in the production process. This can take place at the solution stage, fibre, yarn or fabric stages depending on the end result the manufacturer wants to achieve and the purpose for which the fabric is being produced [5] or sometimes on garments [2]. Dyes particles actually bond with the fabric fibre on a molecular level and change the colour of the fabric itself. Dyes do tend to result in more saturated colours than pigment, but there are downsides as well [6]. The task that must be accomplished in dyeing is to transfer the dye from the bath to the fibre. The term exhaustion is used to express the degree of dye transfer from dye bath to the fibres [7]. Wolfe reveal that, vat dyeing is mainly used cellulosic fibres and is done by the piece dyeing methods, greige (raw fabric that has not gone through any treatment) goods are placed in a dye bath after becoming cloth but before being cut and made into garments) which forms the main consideration of this study.
Colour in fabrics must meet such tests as washing, ironing, steaming, perspiration, strong light, and dry cleaning. Colour fastness is the degree to which a dye holds ‘fast’ to fabric. A high or a good fastness means that the dye does not fade in light, bleed or run in washing, crock or rub off in wear [3].
Ashraf (2011) points out that colour fastness is influenced by a number of variables that occur in both pre-consumer and postconsumer handling of the textile product [8]. Fibre quality, yarn formation, fabric construction, textile wet processing and consumer practices can all have an influence on the performance characteristics of a fabric. Of these variables, the choices made during textile processing have the most significant effect on the colour fastness properties. Dye selection is also of the utmost importance. Consumer practices such as detergent selection and laundering techniques also play a major role in the colour retention of a fabric.
Kiron notes that- the fastness of dye on fibre may depend on certain factors [9]. These factors could be from the environment, household chemicals as well as mechanical action (crocking) on the dye-fibre combination. Three factors were considered as the determinant of colour fastness: the type of dye, the chemical structure of the fibre and the method of application [2]. They indicated that factors such as laundering, dry cleaning, gas fumes, light, perspiration, and crocking affect the colour fastness of dyes. The dyes should also not move or migrate onto other fabrics or materials during storage, processing, use or care [1]. They therefore put forward the conclusion that colourfastness within each dye classification is affected differently by each of these factors. These factors may vary within different dyes in the same classification.
The production of batik /tie-dye fabrics in Ghana, although not indigenous has come to be accepted as a fabric production method as well as one of the easiest ways of starting a business [10]. Its introduction came along with materials and methods that are not necessarily Ghanaian. Worthy of mention is the use of synthetic dyes notably, Vat dyes, reactive dyes and sulphur dyes. These colours provide the best means of dyeing cotton goods with very good fastness properties and in colours that appeal to the taste of the Ghanaian. In spite of the benefits, their patronage has not been appreciable especially in attempts at penetrating the western markets. Prime among the reasons for rejection has been poor colour fastness of the orders supplied. Poor colour fastness could not have been from the type of dye used, but from the procedure of application. The present Ghanaian attitude to standardization and diligence at work has not helped in the strict adherence to production parameters. Such production parameters are time for dyeing and the use of the correct bath ratio for dyeing. In this present study, batiks were produced using vat dyes with consistent production parameters. Colour fastness to washing, light and rubbing on batik samples were then tested to assess their fastness level. The study focus on finding out-
• The short falls of production techniques used by artisans in the batik production sector. Appropriate parameters that can be applied to come out with consistent and result oriented dyeing, procedures for the local manufacturers.
• How to ascertain colour fastness procedures to light and rubbing tests.
• How to determine colour assessment procedures for the sample experiments.

Materials and Methods

Vat dyes form the main materials used for this project because they are the most widely used dye for batik production in Ghana. As purchased from the market, they come mainly in the form of powder as well. They are mainly applied on cellulosic fibres such as cotton although some could be applied to protein fibres. They have astounding colour fastness properties and give good shades with most colours. Auxiliaries used when dyeing with vat dyes were hydro (sodium hydrosulphite) and soda (caustic soda). Hydro serves as a reducing agent while soda aids salt formation when dyeing with vat dyes. Mercerized cotton forms the main type of fabric used for the Batik work because it is the dominant fabric used in batik production in Ghana although linen and rayon are sometimes used.
The experimental process used was design for the batik work using consistent production parameters to produce varied and defined shades and test the colour fastness of the works produce. The descriptive aspect was employed to assess the procedures and techniques used by players in this small scale business and the challenges encountered through interviews and observations. This enables the researchers to identify what was prevailing in the marketplace within the metropolis and propound solutions to them.
Dyeing of Batik samples
The sample batik dyeing process was categorized into three different stages of dyeing: as one, two and three colours respectively. Three separate batik sample designs were produced from each stage. In the stage one dyeing procedure, only one vat dye was applied: in stage two, two were applied, and in stage three, three were applied. Table 1-3 give a summary of the weights of dyes, auxiliaries and length of time used for the one, two and three stages of dyeing procedures.
Table 1: Optimization of dye, auxiliaries and time (m) for single colour dyeing.
Table 2: Optimization of dye, auxiliaries and time (m) for two colour dyeing.
Table 3: Optimization of dye, auxiliaries and time (m) for three colour dyeing.
The dyeing process
In the sampling (batik) dyeing process, paraffin wax was melted in a little melting pot at a regulated temperature. The fabric was stretched on a foamy table that kept the fabric flat and horizontal. The wax was applied with designed blocks; however, designs created on other surfaces could also be used. Soft water was poured into an open plastic basin with a diameter that allowed the fabric to be well submerged and at the same time have enough room for free movement. To this, the appropriate amounts of dye and dye auxiliaries determined by the dyers based on the experimental parameters were dissolved and added to form the dye bath. The fabric to be dyed was folded and soaked in water to enable it to absorb the dye properly. It was then introduced into the dye bath. The dyers ensured that the fabric remained submerged the whole period of the dyeing time. During dyeing, the fabric sample was gently moved in the dye solution from time to time to ensure that the solution had access to every part of the fabric. This was also done to reduce variations in shade due to the formation of folds and pleats.
At the end of the appropriate time determined by the researchers, the fabric was removed and then rinsed thoroughly to get rid of all excess dye that might still be on the surface of the fabric. The fabric sample is then opened up, air dried and de-waxed. For the de-waxing, two pans are used, one with boiling water and the other with warm water. With a pair of sticks to control the fabric width, the fabric was let down in open width into the first pan. The fabric stayed in there for some few minutes and then was removed after a few repeated dips of sections of it into the boiling water. This is done from time to time to get rid of the melted wax. The fabric was then transferred immediately into the pan of warm water, rinsed and air dried. For two and three stage dyeing, waxing and dyeing was repeated for each colour, waxing areas after each dye bath in which one wanted to retain the most recent colour.
Appropriate protective clothing was used during the dying processes to prevent the inhalation of toxic fumes and burns resulting from accidental spillage.
Preparation of fabric samples for colour fastness test
Batik samples were taken to the Ghana Standard Board for the various colour fastness tests. Rectangular fabric pieces were cut from each fabric sample. Fabric samples were grouped according to the various dyeing process. The code “B” was used to represent batik and “V” to represent vat dye. The subscript 1, 2, 3… were used to indicate the number of samples in a particular group. The superscript 2, 3… was used to indicate the various stages of dyeing
Test procedure for colour fastness to wash, to light and to rubbing
Each dyed sample wastested for colour fastness to washing using a standard soap solution as well as an Omo solution. Four groups of samples were used for this test. The standard solution was used on two groups and the Omo solution was used on the other two groups. A piece of multifibre adjacent fabric types DW which is used to assess staining was stitched to each fabric in one group for both solutions. Each sample from the four groups was placed in beakers containing the allocated soap solution measured according to the weight of the samples. The Laundrometer (fabric testing instrument used for determining the colour fastness to washing and staining of textile samples in any form such as fibre, yarn and Fabric) was used for the test. The samples were washed in the laundrometer for 30 minute at 60 0C. Colour change and staining were graded using the grey scale.
Colour fastness to light test procedure
Dyed samples were mounted on a cardboard. Half of the samples were exposed and half covered. The specimens were exposed to sunlight for 8hours /day for 9 days. After 72 hours of exposure, the samples were graded for colour change using the grey scale.
Colour fastness to rubbing test procedure
Crockmaster was used for testing the rubbing effect. The test samples about 25 cm by 5 cm were clump on the crockmaster table and standard crocking cloth provided with the equipment was rubbed against the specimen. This was done for each sample using both dry and wet cloths. Each sample for both rubbing was given ten strokes and the colour change and staining on each white cloth were graded.
Colour assessment
The Geometric Grey Scale was used to evaluate both change in colour and staining of samples. A controlled piece and a treated test piece were placed side by side (without leaving any space between them) in the same plane oriented in the same direction. For colour change, fabric samples were used as the controlled piece while with staining, multifibre adjacent fabric type DW was used as the controlled piece. Multifibre adjacent fabric type DW is produced with a narrow weave construction. It contains secondary cellulose acetate, cotton, acrylic, polyamide, polyester and wool. This is used to assess staining on cotton. The grey scale was placed nearby in the same plane and the difference in colour of the controlled piece and the treated sample gave the Grey Scale reading of the treated sample. The Grey scale was used to assess the colour change and stain on DW material in numerical ratings from 5 to1, where 5 is ‘No change’ and 1 is ‘Maximum’.

Results and Discussion

Colour fastness washing, rubbing and light
It is evident from Table 4 that after washing with standard soap solution that all batik had slight to negligible colour change (4.5) except BV1, BV22 and BV3 3 which had a slightly higher colour change effect of 4. After washing with Omo solution, the result shows that there was appreciable slight change of colour (4) in all the batik samples except BV2 which had a slight lower colour change effect. Staining results after washing with standard soap showed no staining (5) in all batik samples except BV21, BV22, BV33 which had negligible to slightly staining of 4.5. A consistent slight to negligible staining was observed in all batik samples after washing with Omo. Better staining results were however obtained for batik samples when tested for dry rubbing than wet rubbing. All batiks had slight to negligible colour change (4.5) except BV31 which had a slightly higher colour change effect of 4for light fastness.
Table 4: Gray scale values for Washing, Rubbing and Light Fastness
Summary of effect of washing on colour change for categories of Batik groups: Table 5 shows the summary of the grey scale value of groups of batik samples obtained for a standard soap solution. By looking at the table it can be seen that all batik groups’ samples after washing with standard soap had the same mean value (4.3), median colour change grey scale value (4.5), standard deviation (0.29) minimum value (4.0) as well as maximum grey scale value of 4.5.
Table 5: Summary of Grey Scale Reading on the Effect of Washing on Colour Change by Standard Soap on the Categories of Batiks.
Results from Table 6 shows that batik group BV had a higher mean grey scale reading (4.2) than batik group BV2 and BV3 after washing with Omo indicating a lower colour change in BV. All batik groups had median grey scale of 4.0 which indicated a slight change in colour. Standard deviation shows there is a slight spread of grey scale values of 0.29 after washing with Omo in BV batik group indicating a slight change in colour. A consistent minimum value of 4.0 was recorded for all batik groups. The maximum grey scale value for batik group BV was the higher (4.5) indicating a slight to negligible colour change.
Table 6: Summary of Grey Scale Reading on the Effect of Washing on Colour Change by Omo on Categories of Batiks.
In comparing the two tables it was observed that there was mild colour change effect in both sample groups after washing with both standard soap and Omo. It was also observed that there was less colour change effect in batik groups after washing with standard soap than with Omo.
Summary of effect of washing on staining on categories of Batiks: Results from Table 7 show that batik group BV had the highest mean grey scale reading of 5.0 after washing with standard soap indicating no staining effect. BV2 and BV3 however had a slight staining effect with mean grey scale reading of 4.7 and 4.8 respectively. Batik groups BV and BV3 had median grey scale value of 5.0 which indicates a negligible staining effect. Both batik groups BV2 however had a median of 4.5 which indicates a slight staining effect. All batik groups had a consistent standard deviation value of 0.29 indicating a slight staining effect. Batik groups BV2 and BV3 have the same minimum and maximum grey scale value of 4.5 and 5.0 respectively. A lower minimum and maximum grey scale values were recorded for batik group BV.
Table 7: Summary of Grey Scale Readings on the Effect of Washing on Staining by Standard Soap on Category of Batiks.
Table 8 shows the summary of the grey scale value of groups of batik samples obtained for a standard soap solution. By looking at the table it can be seen that all batik group samples after washing with standard soap had the same mean value (4.5), median colour change grey scale value (4.5), standard deviation (0) minimum value (4.5) as well as maximum grey scale value of 4.5.In comparing the two tables it was observed that there was mild staining effect in both sample groups after washing with both standard soap and Omo. It was also observed that there was less staining effect in the batik groups after washing with standard soap than with Omo.
Table 8: Summary of Grey Scale Readings on the Effect of Washing on Staining by Omo on Categories of Batiks.
Summary of effect of rubbing on staining on categories of Batiks: Results from Table 9 show that batik group BV3 had a lower mean grey scale reading than batik group BV and BV2 after dry rubbing indicating a higher staining effect. Batik groups BV3 also had a lower median grey scale value, spread in standard deviation and maximum grey scale value. Batik groups BV and BV2 also had the same mean, median grey scale value, spread in standard deviation and maximum grey scale value.
Table 9: Summary of Grey Scale on the Effect of Dry Rubbing on Staining on Categories of Batiks.
Results from Table 10 show that batik group BV3 had a lower mean grey scale reading than batik group BV and BV2 after dry rubbing indicating a higher staining effect. Batik groups BV2 also had a lower median grey scale value, minimum and maximum grey scale value. Standard deviation for BV2 was however the highest indicating a higher staining effect. Batik groups BV and BV2 also had the same mean, median grey scale value, standard deviation, minimum and maximum grey scale value.
Table 10: Summary of Grey Scale on the Effect of Wet Rubbing on Staining on Categories of Batiks.
In comparing the two tables it was observed that there was a mild staining effect for dry rubbing for all samples. A higher effect was seen after wet rubbing giving lower grey scales values. Results therefore, shows there was less staining in batik groups after dry rubbing than after wet rubbing.
Summary of effect of light on colour change on categories of Batiks: Results from Table 11 show that batik group BV3 had a lower mean grey scale reading as well as minimum grey scale value. Standard deviation for BV3 was however the highest indicating a higher effect. Batik groups BV and BV2 also had the same mean, median grey scale value, standard deviation, minimum and maximum grey scale value.
Table 11: Summary of Grey Scale Reading on the Effect of Light on Colour Change on the Categories of Batiks.

Conclusions

The primary goal of this work is to produce batiks using vat dyes and assess the effect of soap, light and rubbing on colour fastness of the batiks produced. Dyeing carried out to generate the batiks mainly simulated actual dyeing procedures and use of dyes and chemicals. The researchers were able to test colour fastness quality of selected batik samples to washing, rubbing and light using standard test methods. Batik samples generally showed good colour fastness properties when tested to washing, rubbing and light under these dyeing conditions. Batiks dyed in three stages, however, had better colour fastness properties than batiks dyed in two stages.

References











Track Your Manuscript

Share This Page

Associations