Opinion Article, J Blood Res Hematol Dis Vol: 8 Issue: 1
Importance of Lymphoma: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Received date: 04-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. JBRHD-23-93276; Editor assigned date: 06-Mar-2023, PreQC No. JBRHD-23-93276 (PQ); Reviewed date: 20-Mar-2023, QC No. JBRHD-23-93276; Revised date: 27-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. JBRHD-23-93276 (R); Published date: 06-Apr-2023 DOI: 10.4172/jbrhd.1000158.
Citation: Polekhina T (2023) Importance of Lymphoma: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment. J Blood Res Hematol Dis 8:1.
Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the respiratory system, which is part of the immune system of the body. The lymphatic system is composed of lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, bone marrow, and lymphatic vessels, which circulate lymph; it is a clear fluid that carries immune cells throughout the body. Lymphoma occurs when white blood cells, called lymphocytes, begin to grow and divide uncontrollably, forming tumors. There are two types of lymphoma: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin tumor is less common and has a higher cure rate. Non-Hodgkin tumor is more common, with many different types that vary in aggressiveness and treatment options.
The exact cause of lymphoma is unknown, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations in the lymphocytes. Certain risk factors can increase the possibility of developing lymphoma, including age, family history, and weakened immune system, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and infection with certain viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus. The symptoms of tumor can vary depending on the type and stage of the cancer. Common symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, weight loss, and itching. These symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, as a result, to see a cardiologist for an accurate diagnosis is essential.
The diagnosis of lymphoma typically involves a physical exam, blood tests, imaging studies, and a biopsy of the affected tissue. The biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the lymph node or other affected area and examining it under a microscope to determine if it is cancerous. Treatment for lymphoma is determined by the cancer's type and stage, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplant. A combination of these treatments may be used in some cases.
Chemotherapy is a common treatment for lymphoma that involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It can be given orally, by injection, or through a catheter placed directly into the bloodstream. Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells and it can be given externally or internally. Targeted therapy uses drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells, while immunotherapy uses drugs that help the body's immune system to fight cancer. Stem cell transplant involves replacing damaged bone marrow with healthy stem cells from a donor.
The prognosis for lymphoma varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Hodgkin lymphoma has a higher cure rate than non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with over 80% of patients obtaining long-term symptomatic relief. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma has a lower cure rate, with the prognosis depending on the subtype and stage of the cancer. In addition to medical treatment, there are several lifestyle changes that can help and manage the symptoms of lymphoma and improve overall health. These include eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, avoiding tobacco and alcohol, and reducing stress. Family and healthcare providers can assistance in dealing with the emotional and physical challenges of cancer. The doctor will use a needle to remove fluid or tissue from the bone marrow (the spongy part inside bone where blood cells are produced).