Journal of Athletic EnhancementISSN: 2324-9080

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Research Article, J Athl Enhancement Vol: 4 Issue: 4

Visual Cortices and their Impact on Sport-Related Concussion: A Review

Andrea Cripps1*, Scott C. Livingston2, Yang JIANG3, Carl Mattacola4, Patrick Kitzman5, Emily Van Meter Dressler6 and Patrick McKeon7
1Assistant Professor Athletic Training Education , Bowling Green State University, USA
2Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Defense Center of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury, USA
3Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, USa
4Rehabilitation Science, University of Kentucky , USA
5Rehabilitation Sciences Doctoral Program and Division of Physical Therapy, University of Kentucky, USA
6Department of Biostatistics, University of Kentucky, USA
7Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Ithaca College, USA
Corresponding author : Andrea Cripps PhD, ATC
Assistant Professor Athletic Training Education, Eppler South 209, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403
Received: January 16, 2015 Accepted: September 16, 2015 Published: September 22, 2015
Citation: Cripps A (2015) Visual Cortices and their Impact on Sport-Related Concussion: A Review, Controlled Trial. J Athl Enhancement 4:4. doi:10.4172/2324-9080.1000206


Visual Cortices and their Impact on Sport-Related Concussion: A Review

The human visual cortex is a complex anatomical system which involves inputs and outputs from multiple areas of the brain including both the ventral and dorsal visual pathways. These visual areas and pathways may be altered following a concussion (a subtype of mild traumatic brain injury or TBI) as a result of topdown processing in the brain. Theoretical models for changes occurring in the visual pathways derived from primate research can be applied to the visual cortex in humans following concussions. The purposes of this review article are to: (1) provide an overview of the two anatomical pathways of the human visual system, (2) describe the implications for the differential effects of brain injury in the dorsal and ventral visual pathways of individuals who have sustained a mild TBI, and (3) explain how frontal cortex function or dysfunction modulates both perception and action which take place in posterior parts of the brain.

Keywords: Visual cortex; Concussions; Frontal cortex; Brain injury

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