Association of Candida albicans in development of oral cavity infection in North Indian populationt
Fahad Mansoor Samadi
King George′s Medical University, India
: Dent Health Curr Res
Presently, cancer one of the most prevalent types of disease is a growing health problem round the world and is the one of the leading cause of death. Oral cancer, sixth most common cancer which occurs worldwide and continues to be the most prevalent cancer which develops in multistep process from pre-existing potentially malignant lesions. The most common precancer is Leukoplakia which represents 85% of such lesions and 95% of Oral Cancers are Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCC). In India, the incidence of Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) and OSCC is also increasing like an epidemic and clear majority of OSCC arises from preexisting Leukoplakia. Several studies have reported that 1-18% of premalignant oral lesions will develop into malignant form. Candida albicans has also been identified as a possible factor in development of oral leukoplakia and its malignant transformation. Candida species, dimorphic harmless eukaryotic organism are members of phylum Ascomycota. In healthy individual, it mostly resides as a part of normal commensal microbial flora on mucosal surfaces of oral cavity. Candida albicans grows as a filamentous form, capable of forming true hyphae and is one of the only Candida species. Hyphae play important roles in adhesion and invasion into epithelium. It contributes many virulence attributes like adherence to host tissue and release of some hydrolytic enzymes. It is still unclear, how an increased amount of Candida albicans in oral cavity influence the progression of pre-cancer to malignancy. A higher level of Candida albicans is present in precancerous and OSCC patients. Candida albicans is most pathogenic and significantly more successful pathogen in oral malignancy transformation. There are no drugs which can affect extremely to treat oral cancers. There is a general call for new emerging drugs that are highly effective towards cancer, possess low toxicity and have a minor environment impact. Novel natural products offer opportunities for innovation in drug discovery. Natural compounds isolated from medicinal plants, as rich sources of novel anticancer drugs, have been of increasing interest. The alarming reports of cancer cases increase the awareness amongst the clinicians and researchers pertaining to investigate newer drug with low toxicity.
Fahad M Samdi has completed his MDS from Sardar Patel Post-Graduate Institute. He is an Assistant Professor in Dept. of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, K G M U. He has published many papers and in reputed journals and book chapters. firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com