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Comparison of Proactive vs. Reactive Localization Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
Randomly deployed nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN) gain benefit of being aware of their location for routing or delivering meaningful information to the base station. Many WSN localization methods have been investigated in terms of their convergence, position refinement or need of a reference coordinate system. In this paper, we present a study on two possible ways of using twoway ranging technique for range based sensor node localization. Two-way ranging technique has gained popularity in WSNs since it does not require clock synchronization in inexpensive and energy constrained sensor nodes. We present two distributed techniques for localization using two-way ranging. These techniques use two different approaches for localization, one is the proactive approach and the other is the reactive approach. In the proactive approach, localization process is initiated by the localized nodes, whereas, the later the process is initiated by the non-localized nodes. We compare the two techniques in terms of their convergence condition, convergence delay and communication cost.
Performance Analysis of Query Optimizers under Varying Hardware Components in RDBMS
Query Optimization is the process of choosing the most efficient way to execute a Structured Query Language (SQL) statement, while query optimizer is a tool in Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) that carries out the process of optimizing a query. In this paper, four different RDBMS were considered namely Microsoft SQL 2010 Server, Oracle 11g Release 2, My SQL 5.6 and Microsoft Access 2010. For the purpose of testing four different data sets were used. The data was run using each data set (1 310 116, 1 047 999, 750 000, 500 000, 250 000 and 125 000). It was discovered that adding more memory to the system shows improved performance of the RDBMS query optimizer. Also, increasing Hard Disk Size has little effect on the performance of RDBMS. While changing the processor size from single core to duo core does not visibly show improved performance of the RDBMS. In all the cases stated, SQL Server 2010 offers better performance followed by My SQL 5.6, Oracle 11g release 2 and Ms Access 2010 respectively. Therefore this paper provides a framework to monitor the trend of the increasing/decreasing changes in hardware components on the performance of query optimizers in RDBMS. The application is recommended for RDBMS developers and maintainers.
A Fingerprint-based Authentication Framework for ATM Machines
The security of the transactions on the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) has been raising many concerns in some parts of the world. These concerns are due to series of limitations in the existing designs of the various service points. The current use of Personal Identification Number (PIN) for ATM user’s verification and identification has been susceptible to unauthorized access, misplacement, forgetfulness, card swallowing among others; thereby narrowing down the machine’s acceptability and patronage. In this paper, a framework for fingerprint authenticated ATM application is presented. The framework comprises of modules for fingerprint enrolment, database and verification. The verification module comprises of fingerprint enhancement, feature extraction and matching sub-modules, which all rely on suitable mathematical models to function. There is also platform for financial transaction including withdrawal and balance enquiries. The implementation was carried out using Windows 7 as operational platform while C# and Microsoft SQL server served as the frontend and backend engines respectively. Tests conducted on the evaluation of the application using False Rejection Rate (FRR), False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and Average Matching Time (AMT) show the adequacy and the suitability of the proposed framework for ATM user verification and authentication.
Hybrid Intelligent System for the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever
The diagnosis of Typhoid Fever (TF) is often complicated due to the significant number of vague variables involved. As a result of this complexity, several lives have been lost while others are living with deteriorated health status. This research proposes a Hybrid Intelligent System which provides an efficient means of handling the complexity associated with the diagnosis of TF.