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Radiative Heat Transport through Vapor Plasma for Fusion Heat Flux Studies and Electrothermal Plasma Sources Applications
High heat fluxes of up to 100 GW/m2 and greater over a discharge period of 100 to 1000 μs can be generated from electrothermal (ET) plasma sources from the confined arc discharge. Sources with input energy of 10 kJ in a miniature capillary (4 mm radius and 9 cm length) are capable of producing 88.33 GW/m2 heat flux inside the capillary, higher heat fluxes can be generated for higher input energies. Such high heat fluxes are adequate to simulate the energy deposition during hard disruptions in future fusion tokamak reactors, which result in erosion and thermal deformation of the surfaces of the critical internal components of the reactor. Calculation of the eroded mass due to intensive transient radiative heat transport to the surfaces is very critical in terms of the determination of the performance, durability and the life time of these components.
Radiotracers in Study of Anion Exchange Resins Purolite NRW-8000 and Duolite A-171
Radioactive tracers 131I and 82Br were used to understand the performance of anion exchange resins Purolite NRW-8000 and Duolite A-171. The ion exchangers were separately brought in equilibrium with labeled I- and Br- ions solutions in the concentrations range of 0.001 to 0.004 mol/L and temperature varying from 30.0 to 45.0°C to study the I- and Br- ion-isotopic exchange reactions. The results show that under similar experimental conditions, the values of specific reaction rate in min-1, amount of ion exchanged in mmol and initial rate of ion exchange in mmol/min were lower for Br- ion-isotopic exchange reaction as compared to that for Iion- isotopic exchange reaction. Also for both the reactions, under similar conditions, the specific reaction rate values rises with rise in concentration of ionic solution, and decreases with rise in temperature.
Different Countries, Similar Nuclear Safety Culture: A Study on Comparison of Nuclear Safety Cultures in China and USA
Nuclear Safety Culture has always been the top priority of Nuclear Power Industry since its inception. However, there are many long-held perceptions in the industry that countries with nuclear power programs have different nuclear safety cultures and the opportunities for improvement varies a lot due to the influence of its specific national traditions and cultures, which led to difficulty in close cooperation in the area of enhancing nuclear safety culture on a broader basis.
The purpose of the study is to compare nuclear safety cultures and identify common opportunities for improvement for NPPs both in China and USA and promote a broader cooperation in the area of nuclear safety culture. A consistent approach of assessment developed by Utility Service Alliance was used to identify opportunities for improvement of nuclear safety culture in NPPs in both countries. The results of four nuclear safety culture assessments (two in USA and two in China) were reviewed and the common opportunities for improvement were identified together with the unique strength that the four nuclear industry share. It was generally concluded that nuclear safety culture of NPPs both in China and USA has much in common than its difference, there is no visible national boundary for the application of a strong nuclear safety culture.