The Journal of Sleep Disorders : Treatment & Care (JSDTC) promotes rigorous research that makes a significant contribution in advancing knowledge for Sleep behavior disorders and, as well as treatment strategies, Latest therapies, diagnostic tools, and treatment innovations to care for those who suffer from a wide range of sleep disorders.
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Personality Traits Associated with Sleep Initiation Problems
Difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep may be influenced by cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors. Some evidence suggests that particular personality traits are prone toward enhanced arousal, worry, rumination, and poor cognitive and behavioral control, which may contribute to difficulties falling asleep. Presently, we tested the hypothesis that sleep initiation problems would be related to the personality traits of neuroticism, impulsivity, and high emotional control. Sixty-one healthy adults (31 males; 30 females) ranging in age from 18 to 41 completed a questionnaire about sleep problems and several measures of personality, including the NEO-PI-R, Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS 11), and Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS). On average, participants who indicated that they had a problem with sleep initiation scored higher on scales of neuroticism, impulsivity, and emotional control. When personality traits were entered into a stepwise logistic regression, only impulsivity was retained as a significant predictor of the presence or absence of sleep onset difficulties. When sleep latency in minutes was analyzed as a continuous variable, linear regression analyses revealed that both neuroticism and impulsivity combined as significant predictors of the self-reported time to fall asleep. Findings suggest that personality factors involved in negative emotional arousal and rumination are related to problems falling asleep, but that most of the variance appears to be attributable to deficits in cognitive and emotional control.
Subjective and Objective Sleep Measures in Older People with a History of Falls
Study background: Falls are common in older people, with approximately 40% of those aged 80 and over falling each year. Sleep difficulties in older people have been recognized as a risk factor for falls. Most clinical and research information on sleep in older people, particularly in older fallers has been self-reported. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to describe the level and type of sleep problems in community-dwelling older people who have a history of falls, and to investigate whether sleep difficulties are associated with falls and falls risk. Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional observational study of objective and subjective sleep falls risk and falls history. Thirty-five community-dwelling Veterans or war widow/ers who had fallen at least once in the previous year were recruited. Objective inlaboratory polysomnography and in-home assessment of subjective sleep and falls risk profile were assessed.
Positive Airway Pressure Levels for Children with Sleep Disordered Breathing
Study Objectives: Positive airway pressure (PAP) is the mainstay therapy for children presenting with sleep disordered breathing/ obstructive sleep apnea (SDB/OSA) who are either not a candidate for, or have failed other treatments. There are few published reports on PAP therapy in the pediatric population. We describe PAP settings used to treat clinical groups of children with and without Down syndrome. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Records from children, aged 1-18 years with prescribed PAP therapy to treat sleep disordered breathing (OSA/SDB) between 1997 and 2011 were reviewed. Demographic and polysomnographic data were extracted for six sub-groups of children with OSA/SDB: nonobese, overweight and obese (children with Down syndrome and otherwise typical children).
Daytime Sleepiness, Circadian Preference, Caffeine Consumption and Khat Use among College Students in Ethiopia
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of daytime sleepiness and circadian preferences, and to examine the extent to which caffeine consumption and Khat (a herbal stimulant) use are associated with daytime sleepiness and evening chronotype among Ethiopian college students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,410 college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about sleep, behavioral risk factors such as caffeinated beverages, tobacco, alcohol, and Khat consumption. Daytime sleepiness and chronotype were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Horne and Ostberg Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), respectively. Linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations.
A Comparison of Self-Report and Interview Methods for Assessing Sleep Paralysis: Pilot Investigations in Denmark and the United States
Purpose: In two pilot investigations we compared sleep paralysis (SP) rates using a self-report versus interview assessment method in two samples from the general population of Denmark, and one sample from the general population of the United States (US). Methods: The three samples did not differ on gender, age, education and racial distribution. In Study I, one sample of Danish participants (n=216) completed the first item of the Sleep Paralysis Questionnaire (SPQ) in the form of an online survey (self-report version); the same item was orally administered to another sample of Danish participants (n=223) but with the inclusion of an open-ended probe such that participants could elaborate on their experience (interview-based version). In Study II, a sample of US participants (n=77) initially completed the first item of the SPQ in self-report paper format and the same participants were subsequently administered the same item orally (similar to Study I, with an open-ended probe).