Evaluation of Groundwater Resources for Drinking and Domestic Purposes in Related to Human Activities at Assiut Area- Egypt
Generally, the arid zones are characterized by scare or limitation in their water resources. During the last few years, these water resources suffered from agricultural, human and urbanization pollutants. So a plan for water quality assessment is needed. The present study aims to evaluate groundwater resources for drinking and domestic purposes. To achieve this goal, 109 groundwater samples was collected from groundwater resources in Assiut Governorate at autumn season 2013. Chemical analysis of the major and some trace elements were care out at Geology Department - Faculty of Science - Minia University and Environmental Affairs Agency. World Health Organization and Egyptian Stander guideline taken into consideration in evaluating the water for human drinking and domestic uses. The resulted data of chemical analysis of major and trace elements showed that; About 96.3% of groundwater samples are ranging between acceptable and permissible for human drinking and only 3.7% of groundwater samples are unsuitable due to their high content of total dissolved solids (TDS). But Most of groundwater samples (91.74%) are unacceptable for human drinking because it's higher content of some minor and trace elements as Manganese (Mn), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) and the remain samples are acceptable. According to (WHO, 2004) and Eg. St., (1995, 2007) guidelines for drinking water quality, [Total dissolved Soled (TDS), major ions, minor and trace, etc constituents]- total evaluation; about 96.3% of groundwater samples incompatible and the rest samples are compatible when compared with (WHO, 2004). While 8.26% compatible and 91.74% of groundwater samples are incompatible when compared with (Eg. St. 1995, (2007). All groundwater samples 100 % are very hard for domestic and laundry. According to the guideline National Academy of science (NAS) and National Academy of Engineering (NAE), (1972) and (Mckee, 1963), most groundwater samples (96.3 %) are excellent for livestock and poultry. The rest 3.7 % are very satisfactory. The present study recommends management of pollution sources, including an application of Agrochemicals and controlling the seepage of wastewater from rural as well as management of wastewater treatment plants, protecting the area around the pumping well and the outlet of drinking water treatment plants, Continuous monitoring of water resource using for drinking purposes.