Hydrochemical Assessment and Seasonal Variations in Surface Water Quality Parameters of Ved pond in Ratanpur in Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
In the present work Ved pond which are situated around the remote area in Ratanpur. People residing near these sites use water for bathing, washing clothes and for their other daily activities. These samples were analysed for 13 Physico-chemical parameters to evaluate their suitability for domestic application. The various parameters that affects the water quality such as Temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total dissolved solid, Dissolved oxygen, Biological oxygen demand, Transparency, Alkalinity, Nitrate, Phosphate, Calcium, Magnesium ,Total suspended solid, were investigated. In the present work, we selected 08 sampling points on peripheral sites in the zone i.e. 02 Sites in North direction, and 02 sites each in South West and East and eight sampling sites on inner sites (centre) in the Ved pond. Water samples were collected from various sampling sites from four directions North South East and West. Sampling sites were selected on the basis of margin length of water reservoirs at interval of 100 meter and 100 meter inside to the ponds. Considering the depth, the samples were collected from water surface and bottom of the ponds. A total of 08 representative water samples in peripheral sites and 08 samples in inner sites were collected from August 2018 to May19. This research is aimed to investigate the quality of surface water for rural people. The maximum transparency value of 37.0 ± 0.40 was recorded at S-1in the East marginal sites and 30 ± 0.22 at the East inner sites in the rainy season. The maximum mean value of pH was found to be 9.9 ± 0.41at S-1(north peripheral) in the summer season. The alkaline nature of the pond water values may be due to sewage discharged by surrounding villages and agricultural fields. The total load of salts in a water body is directly related to its conductivity. The EC values of the study area had a maximum mean of 1044 ± 44.1 (north peripheral) at S-2 in the summer season and 982 ± 29.2 (West inner) at S-b in the rainy season, its indicates the load of salts in a water body is directly related to its conductivity. DO and BOD values were always above the WHO permissible limit of at all sampling stations. Maximum mean BOD 39 ± 2.1was found at S-2 (West peripheral) at in the summer season .The mean value of BOD increases in the summer season indicating increase in organic load in water .Ca2+and Mg2+ ions ranges from 27.2 ± 14.8 (S-2, South Marginal in the rainy season) to 133.9 ± 31.0 (S-2, East Marginal in the summer season).and for inner sites it varied between 9.6 ± 4.2 (S-1 South marginal in the rainy season) and 31.7 ± 4.1(S-1 west marginal in the summer season). During the study the highest mean concentration of total nitrogen during summer season was observed as 67.5 ± 18.2 at S-2 North peripheral and a maximum of 58.7 ± 12.7 at S-s south inner in the summer season. The tabulated data shows this seasonal variation. Since there is variation in monthly climate over different seasons, therefore the average values of the parameters have been also been tabulated. The study shows that water of Ved pond is found to be polluted as this pond is surrounded on all sides by residential localities and sewerage from residences is continuously flowing into the pond. A number of instances of skin diseases in the people who were in contact with the pond water living nearby has been reported. Thus measures have to be adopted for the treatment of the Ved pond water.