Recent Advances in the Human Male Gamete Molecular Composition in Normal and Varicocele Sperm and Steroid Receptors
The sperm in mammals has been always studied with great interest for its function in fertilization and the particular features as cell. However, studies have been mainly focused on morphological and biochemical changes related to the processes of capacitation and acrosome reaction. The advent of innovative biotechnologies in recent years made possible to clarify in part the structure of the male gamete at the molecular level, nevertheless the composition and the mechanisms that regulate its functions are yet to be defined. Interestingly, the human sperm during its life passes through two stages of development: the first in the male genital tract, where it acquires the morpho-anatomical maturation the second in the female genital tract, where it acquires the functional maturation during the capacitation process which prepares the gamete to the acrosome reaction. Testicular Varicocele impairs male fertility in a variety of ways, on spermatogenesis, semen quality and functionality of the gametes. Recently, it was showed that the disease cause a damage in the male gamete at the molecular level including a steroid receptors reduction and this open a new chapter in the already multifaceted physiopathology of Varicocele. These studies constrain the need of further researches on gamete composition and on the diseases related the male genital apparatus, considering the high couple infertility linked to the male. The mini review focalizes on new intriguing advances in sperm cell biology. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of steroid receptors in the physiopathology of testicular Varicocele.