Journal of Genital System & DisordersISSN: 2325-9728

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Review Article, J Genit Syst Disor Vol: 5 Issue: 3

Recent Advances in the Human Male Gamete Molecular Composition in Normal and Varicocele Sperm and Steroid Receptors

Passarelli V1, Gervasi MC2 and Aquila S1,3*
1Department of Pharmacy and Sciences of Health and Nutrition, University of Calabria-Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 87036, Italy
2University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro, Italy
3Centro Sanitario - University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 87036, Italy
Corresponding author : Prof. Aquila Saveria
Department of Pharmacy and Science of Health and Nutrition, University of Calabria-Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 87036, Italy
Tel: +39 0984 492927, +39 0984 496210
Fax: +39 0984 492929, +39 0984 496203
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
Received: March 18, 2016 Accepted: May 03, 2016 Published: May 10, 2016
Citation: Passarelli V, Gervasi MC, Aquila S (2016) Recent Advances in the Human Male Gamete Molecular Composition in Normal and Varicocele Sperm and Steroid Receptors. J Genit Syst Disor 5:3. doi:10.4172/2325-9728.1000156

Abstract

The sperm in mammals has been always studied with great interest for its function in fertilization and the particular features as cell. However, studies have been mainly focused on morphological and biochemical changes related to the processes of capacitation and acrosome reaction. The advent of innovative biotechnologies in recent years made possible to clarify in part the structure of the male gamete at the molecular level, nevertheless the composition and the mechanisms that regulate its functions are yet to be defined. Interestingly, the human sperm during its life passes through two stages of development: the first in the male genital tract, where it acquires the morpho-anatomical maturation the second in the female genital tract, where it acquires the functional maturation during the capacitation process which prepares the gamete to the acrosome reaction. Testicular Varicocele impairs male fertility in a variety of ways, on spermatogenesis, semen quality and functionality of the gametes. Recently, it was showed that the disease cause a damage in the male gamete at the molecular level including a steroid receptors reduction and this open a new chapter in the already multifaceted physiopathology of Varicocele. These studies constrain the need of further researches on gamete composition and on the diseases related the male genital apparatus, considering the high couple infertility linked to the male. The mini review focalizes on new intriguing advances in sperm cell biology. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of steroid receptors in the physiopathology of testicular Varicocele.

Keywords: Estrogen receptors; Progesterone receptors; Androgen receptors; Steroids; Varicocele

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