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Journal of Addictive Behaviors,Therapy & RehabilitationISSN: 2324-9005

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Research Article, J Addict Behav Ther Rehabil Vol: 2 Issue: 3

Cigarette Smoking, Dependence and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Renewed Approach of an Old Relationship

Salameh Pascale1*, Khayat Georges2, Salame Joseph3 and Waked Mirna4
1Lebanese University - Faculties of Pharmacy & of Public Health, Beirut, Lebanon
2Hôtel Dieu de France Hospital - Beirut & Saint Joseph University- Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon
3Lebanese University – Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon
4Saint George Hospital - Beirut & Balamand University - Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon
Corresponding author : Pascale Salameh, PharmD, MPH, PhD
Professor of Epidemiology, Jdeidet El Meten, Chalet Suisse street, Ramza Azzam bldg, 5th floor, Beirut, Lebanon
Tel: 009613385542; Fax: 009611696600
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
Received: July 04, 2013 Accepted: August 23, 2013 Published: August 26, 2013
Citation: Salameh P, Khayat G, Salamé J, Waked M (2013) Cigarette Smoking, Dependence and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Renewed Approach of an Old Relationship. J Addict Behav Ther Rehabil 2:3. doi:10.4172/2324-9005.1000111

Abstract

Cigarette Smoking, Dependence and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Renewed Approach of an Old Relationship

Introduction: Cigarette dependence is common in cigarette smokers, but the evaluation of its relationship with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has been rarely performed, particularly for the dimensions of this dependence. The objective of this study is to assess such an association. Methods: We used data on current smokers from two samples: a cross-sectional national study and a case-control study. Results: We found a significant association between cigarette dependence and COPD in current smokers (OR between 2 and 4); the results were confirmed in samples of both studies, by multivariate analysis and dose-effect relationship. The results were in favor of an effect that is independent of cumulative smoking dose and of nicotine physiological dependence; moreover, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of COPD per LCD quintile and FTND dependence categories (p<0.001 for trends). Conclusion: Cigarette dependence is associated with COPD in current smokers, independently of the smoking dose and of nicotine dependence level.

Keywords: FTND, LCD, tobacco, chronic obstruction, Lebanon

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