Clinical Research in Orthopedics

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Shepard R Hurwitz, MD

Editorial Board Member

Director, American Board of Orthopedics Surgery
UNC School Medicine, USA

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About the Journal

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Clinical Research in Orthopedics (CRO) is a peer reviewed Open Access, online Journal dedicated to disseminate most reliable source of information on Orthopedic Research. The Journal aims to promote basic, clinical and translational research pertaining to musculoskeletal conditions and disorders, diagnosis, treatment, medical procedures, rehabilitation, prevention and management in all major Orthopedic subspecialties.

The scope of the journal is publishing the article of admiring standard in the field of musculoskeletal system, Orthopedic Surgeries, Musculoskeletal oncology, Orthopedic Oncology, Orthopedic Trauma, Sports Injuries, Pediatric Orthopedics, Biomechanics etc.

Clinical Research in Orthopedics  focuses on the following areas, but not limited to:

  • Musculoskeletal system
  • Bone Biology
  • Orthopedic disorders and injuries
  • Spine and spinal cord injuries
  • Cartilage disorders
  • Joint diseases and replacement
  • Orthopedic oncology
  • Pediatric orthopedics
  • Podiatric surgery
  • Gait analysis
  • Prosthetics and orthotics
  • Orthopedic trauma
  • ACL reconstruction
  • Plastic and Reconstructive surgery
  • Orthopedic nursing
  • Dislocations of Bone
  • Sports injuries and medicine
  • Bone Grafting
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Biomechanics

Any article pertaining to Orthopedic Research will be considered. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Clinical Research in Orthopedics or  experts out of the board; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.

Musculoskeletal System

The human musculoskeletal system helps in locomotion of the human body by using Muscular and skeletal systems. The subsystems are Muscles, Skeleton, Bones, ligaments and Bursae. The primary function of this system is to protect the vital organs and allowing the movement of the body. Without the muscle fiber contraction and pull against of the skeleton, we are not able to sit, stand, walk or run.

Bone Biology

Bone Biology deals with the bones, these have their own Blood vessels and living cells that help in their self-growth and repair. Bone is also made up of Proteins, vitamins and Minerals. The primary function of the bone is to give structural support and to protect the vital organs of the body. The human body is made up of about 300 soft bones in the beginning, as the adolescence reached the soft bones are matured to hard bones by joining together and had made a count of about 206 bones in the adult skeleton. Some of the bone cells which helps in production, maintenance and modeling are Osteoblasts, Osteocytes and Osteoclasts. In Latin the bones are known as Os, so this study is also known as Osteology.

Orthopedic disorders and injuries

Orthopedics is mainly concerned with Muscles, Ligaments and Joints. Any kind of disorders to these areas is referred as orthopedic disorders and injuries. They can be congenital, developmental or acquired, including those of infectious, neuromuscular, nutritional, neoplastic and psychogenic origin. Some of the more common disorders include those of the: Neck, Foot, Toes, Leg, Spine, Shoulder and Elbow etc.

Muscles, Ligaments and joints compressively called as Orthopedics.  Most commonly recorded disorders of orthopedics are

  • Arthritis,
  • Bursitis,
  • Elbow pain and problems,
  • Fibromyalgia,
  • Fractures,
  • Foot and ankle Surgery
  • Osteoporosis.

Spine and spinal cord injuries

The 26 bones called vertebrae constructs the spine which helps to stand and bend. There are many disorders related to the spine. Some of them are Scoliosis, Lumbar Spinal Stenosis etc. The group of nerves present in the spine is called spinal cord which constructs the central nervous system along with the brain. The main function of the spinal cord is to send signals from the brain to other regions of the body (Main Messenger). Spinal cord injuries can either be complete or incomplete. If sensations and movements are lost below the injured area, the injury is complete. If some of the sensations remain below the level of injury, it is incomplete injury.

Cartilage disorders

At joints the ends of bone tissues are covered by a tough tissue called cartilage. It is mainly useful for shape and support of the body. It prevents the bone from rubbing each other and keeps the bones mobile.  Diseases or conditions that affect the cartilage are called cartilage disorders. There are many types of cartilage disorders, some of them are

  • Chondropathy
  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Chondromalacia
  • Polychondritis
  • Relapsing Polychondritis

Joint diseases and replacement

The location at which the two or more bones meet/join together is called Joint. The disorders or injuries caused at this point are referred as joint diseases. Some of the diseases are arthritis, Bursitis and dislocations. All the kinds of these diseases are cured or treated by many methods but the most common method is replacement of injured bone with the healthy bone obtained either from the own body or from the donor. Common replacements take places are

  •  Hip replacement
  •  Knee replacement

Orthopedic oncology

Treatment of Musculoskeletal tumors for Adults and children are called orthopedic oncology. This deals with the study of both benign and malignant tumors of the bones. The tumors will affect the soft tissue as well as bones. The treatment for this condition is as follows Amputations, bone grafting, endoprosthetic reconstructions, etc.

Pediatric orthopedics

Pediatric orthopedics deals with the musculoskeletal disorders of infants to youngsters. The Child’s musculoskeletal problem is different from the adult because their bones are in the stage of growth and the reaction to injuries will be different from those of adults. Some of the problems with the children are clubfoot, differences in length of the leg, broken bones, Abnormalities in gait, infections and tumors on joints.

Journals Related to Pediatric orthopedics:

Techniques in Orthopaedics, Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica, Journal of Children's Orthopaedics, Indian Journal of Orthopaedics, European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology

Podiatric surgery

The diagnosing and treatment of disorders or problem encountered with foot and ankle is referred to as podiatry. The surgery that deals with the podiatry is known as podiatric surgery. Podiatry is also known as Chiropodist in the older days. The podiatric surgeons should be well versed in the reconstructive surgery of foot, ankle and lower extremities. They should also be trained in orthopedic surgery, sports medicine, physical therapy, biomechanics and endocrinology.

Gait analysis

The movement of our whole body from one point to another is referred to as Gait. The measurement of these movements like Walking or Running to find the biomechanical abnormalities is known as Gait analysis. This analysis is useful in medical diagnostics, Chiropractic and Osteopathic Utilizations, Biometric identification and forensics, Comparative biomechanics, etc. This entire study deals with Quantification of parameters during gait as well as interpretation of the obtained results or graph.

Prosthetics and orthotics

Orthotics is the medical devices recommended to people having difficulty in using their arms and legs because of deficiencies and deformities in the body of respective persons. These devices will give comfort by reducing the shock. Whereas prosthesis is an artificial limb provided to replace an injured limb. Sometimes the condition like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis also increases the need for prosthetics and orthotics.

Orthopedic Trauma

The subspecialty of orthopedic surgery is orthopedic trauma; it deals with the problems related to musculoskeletal system, bones and joints followed by the physical injury caused. These physical injuries are simply called trauma. To treat those injuries, the surgery utilizes operative and non-operative management. The risk factors for trauma are accidents, imbalanced impact, sudden force applied, etc.

ACL reconstruction

Anterior cruciate ligament is one of the main ligaments within the knee that connects femur to tibia (ligaments).In the case of injury to ACL, mainly because of out of control play, awkward landings etc. It has to be reconstructed by another ligament either from own knee cap tendon/ hamstring tendon or from the donor i.e., by autograft or allograft. This reconstruction is usually done by Knee arthroscopy. In this a catheter with tiny camera is inserted into the Knee through small incisions which captures the internal structure of knee and helps the physicians to do their surgery by endoscopy.  The choice of grafting is mainly depends on the age factor and in both grafts, the rehabilitation stage plays a crucial role for recovery of the injured person. As ACL helps in holding the bones at place, it should be mobile. If rehabilitation procedure is not followed properly then the ACL becomes less mobile and the bones starts rub each other and the grafting ends in failure. ACL reconstruction is one of the most trending research topics, as many sports persons are suffered from this injury.

Plastic and Reconstructive surgery

The restoration, reconstruction and alteration of the human body parts to make it look better or normal is known as plastic or reconstructive surgery. The common techniques or procedure followed are autograft, allograft or xenograft based on the requirement or condition which is to be treated. This treatment is mostly carried out in patients suffering from burn accidents and sudden accidents for rebuilding of the bone and also skin grafting. It also plays a role in remodeling the abnormal shape of the body.

Orthopedic Nursing

Nursing is the caring of patients and helps inn rehabilitation stages to get a better and faster recovery. If that nursing is related to musculoskeletal disorders, deals with bones, ligaments and joints then it is called orthopedic nursing. The nurse whose area of interest is in orthopedics then they are called orthopedic nurse. Their role is most important in the later stages of surgery till recovery of the patients.

Dislocations of Bone

When the two bones separated from their corresponding location at the joint, it refers to dislocation of bones. This is generally caused by trauma at joints, unbalanced impact ta the joints, etc. The most common area where the dislocation occurs is Shoulder and Knees. Sometimes the bones of fingers and toes also get dislocated. The symptoms are swelling, pain, redness and difficulty in moving. 

Sports injuries and medicine

Sports injuries occur most commonly during the sports or exercise. The reason for these injuries is lack of warming up or stretching enough. The most common sports injuries are

  • Sprains and strains
  • Knee injuries
  • Achilles tendon injuries
  • Rotator cuff injuries
  • Fractures

These injuries are treated by medicine called sports medicine, branch that deals with the prevention and care of sports injuries.

Bone Grafting

The surgical procedure that fixes problems with bones or joints is called Bone grafting. It is done by the transplantation of healthy tissue or bone in the place of injured or damaged one either from the own body or from the donor. Generally referred as Autograft and Allograft, the most commonly used methods in grafting. Synthetic grafts are also placed to gain the biomechanical activity of the injured site in proper manner, called as Alloplastic grafts. This grafting plays a major role in the dental implants and fibular shaft.

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a disease of the entire joint, involving the cartilage, joint lining, ligaments, and bone. The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. A symptom of osteoarthritis differs depending on which joints are affected and how severely they are affected. Affected joints and muscles may get swollen, especially after extensive activity. These symptoms tend to increase over time rather than show up suddenly.

Biomechanics

Study of structure and function of biological system by the means of mechanics is known as Biomechanics. In the cases of musculoskeletal system, this study leads to the discovery of implants and Biomimetic structures. It is also a branch of Biomedical Engineering. It is mostly used to cure the disorders and injuries and plays important role in the reconstruction stages.

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