Research Article, J Nucl Ene Sci Power Generat Technol Vol: 7 Issue: 2
Beta Induced Bremsstrahlung Shielding Parameters in Al-Based Glassy Alloys
Received: December 26, 2017 Accepted: January 11, 2018 Published: January 19, 2018
Citation: Chandrika BM, Manjunatha HC, Sridhar KN, Seenappa L, Hanumantharayappa C, et al. (2018) Proton Irradiation Effects on the Physio-Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Cold-Worked Molybdenum$. J Nucl Ene Sci Power Generat Technol 7:1. doi: 10.4172/2325-9809.1000181
Beta radiation is discharged during the nuclear reactions. This beta radiation connects with the protecting materials and results optional radiation, for example, bremsstrahlung. Shielding parameters of beta-prompted bremsstrahlung in amalgams are imperative in the field of radiation protecting. We have studied the bremsstrahlung efficiency, bremsstrahlung dose rate, probability of energy loss by beta during bremsstrahlung emission and specific bremsstrahlung constant of the beta of end point energy ranges from 0.4 MeV to 5MeV in some Al-based glassy alloys as Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, Al85Y8Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, Al84Y9Ni4Co1.5Fe0.5Pd1, Al80Y13Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, Al70Y23Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and Al60Y33Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5. We have compared the shielding properties among the studied different Al-based glassy alloys and that of stainless steel. The efficiency, intensity and dose rate of Bremsstrahlung increses with maximum energy of beta nuclide (Emax) and modified atomic number (Zmod). The specific bremsstrahlung constant in Al-based glassy alloys are also evaluated. The studied the bremsstrahlung shielding parameters such as bremsstrahlung efficiency, probability of energy loss by beta during bremsstrahlung emission and specific bremsstrahlung constant values are smaller in the Al-based glassy alloy Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 than the other alloys. This means bremsstrahlung production is less in this alloy. This alloy may be used as substitute for stainless steel.
Keywords: Shielding laterials; Electromagnetic radiation; Nuclear reactor
Bremsstrahlung is a nonstop electromagnetic radiation discharged when an electron or a beta molecule is deflected in the coulomb field of the core. Sommerfeld developed a theory for bremsstrahlung produced by a non-relativistic electron in the coulomb field of the nucleus of a thin target . Bathe-Heitler Sauter and Racah obtained analytical expressions for the relativistic case by neglecting coulomb effects of the nucleus [2-4]. An accurate theory has been developed by Tseng–Pratt using the self-consistent coulomb field wave function . Seltzer extends the Tseng–Pratt theory to the field of an atomic electron . Theoretical methods for calculating thick targets have been formulated by many authors [2,7-10]. Manjunatha and Rudraswamy formulated a method to study the bremsstrahlung parameters in thick target compounds [11-27]. In a nuclear reactor, beta nuclides are discharged during nuclear reactions. These beta nuclides connect with shielding materials and produces bremsstrahlung. The Bremsstrahlung segment of beta producers has been customarily overlooked in shielding calculations. This might be because of an absence of accessible techniques for incorporating this segment in the counts or to the conviction that the commitment of this segment is irrelevant contrasted with that of different outflows. The phenomenon of Bremsstrahlung creation is most imperative at high energies and high medium nuclear numbers .
Radiation shielding in nuclear reactor are usually consist of barriers of lead, concrete and stainless steel. Lead has recently been recognised as a source of environmental pollution and produces more secondary radiation such as bremsstrahlung. Steel is found to be heavy, costly and corrosive material. For the purpose of the radiation shielding, there is a need to search the substitute for steel. The Aluminum is anticorrosive and cheaper than the stainless steel. Alloys with a shapeless structure have great potential for radiation shielding applications as a consequence of their interesting mechanical properties. Hence in the present study we have studied the bremsstrahlung shielding properties of Al-based glassy alloys such as Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, Al85Y8Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, Al84Y9Ni4Co1.5Fe0.5Pd1, Al80Y13Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, Al70Y23Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and Al60Y33Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5. We have also compared the shielding properties among the studied different Albased glassy alloys and that of stainless steel.
Materials and Methods
The bremsstrahlung production efficiency for a given beta/ electron kinetic energy and target material is defined as the ratio of total bremsstrahlung power radiated when an electron is incident on a target to the total power in the incident electron (ε =ϕ/E ). φ Is energy loss by electron/beta during bremsstrahlung production and E is energy of incident electron. The bremsstrahlung efficiency also gives the total fraction of a beta/electron energy that will appear as bremsstrahlung radiation (it is also called as yield) and it can be expresses as
Where E is the maximum (not average) electron/beta energy (in MeV), Z is the atomic number of the target in which the interactions occur. The relation for the efficiency is derived by assuming that the total electron per unit path length can be expressed as
Where ρ and A are the density and atomic weight of the target material respectively. The first term is the collission loss and second term is the radiation loss. The distance (x0) travelled by an electron in losing all of its energy is given by
The bremsstrahlung efficiency or bremsstrahlung yield for thick targets
For a compound target, Z is replaced by modified atomic number (Zmod)  in the above equation. For a beta induced bremsstrahlung energy E=Emax (maximum energy of beta in MeV)
The above equation is used to estimate the bremsstrahlung efficiency/yield and it useful to estimate the bressstrahlung hazard. The fraction appearing as bremsstrahlung radiation is linearly related to the modified atomic number of the medium.
Bremsstrahlung dose rate
The rate of energy emission in the form of bremsstrahlung photons is therefore
We next compute the exposure rate from unshielded bremsstrahlung, treated as coming from a point source at a distance r in cm. The intensity at a distance r is given by
The bremsstrahlung dose rate is
Converting units and remembering that 1R=0.0088Gy in air
Above equation (9) is used to evaluate the bremsstrahlung dose rate by various beta nuclides.
Probability of energy loss by beta during Bremsstrahlung emission
The beta transmitting nuclides connects with shielding material and produces Bremsstrahlung radiation. The beta nuclides lose their energy amid this connection. The likelihood of a Radiative energy loss during Bremsstrahlung cooperation by each β-molecule is given by
Where [(Emax)β]i is the maximum kinetic energy of β-particle i in MeV; [(PBr) β]i equals the probability of a radiative energy loss by β-particle i; Zeff equals the effective atomic number of the stopping material. Markowicz et al. proposed an accurate expression of the modified atomic number (Zmod ) for compound targets for the prediction of the Bremsstrahlung intensity to take into account the self-absorption and electron back scattering . Here, Wi , Ai and Zi are atomic weight, weight fraction and atomic number of ith element respectively. Zmod is defined for Bremsstrahlung interaction and hence Zeff is replaced by Zmod in equation (10).
The probability of radiative energy loss (radiative energy loss) by beta particle i during Bremsstrahlung emission [(PBr)β]i depends on modified atomic number (Zmod) of target material (tissue) and maximum initial kinetic energy of beta particle i that is [(Emax)β]i.
Specific Bremsstrahlung constant of the beta radionuclide (ГBr)
The particular Bremsstrahlung steady is an amount practically equivalent to particular gamma beam consistent for a radioisotope. The particular gamma beam consistent is the introduction rate per unit movement at a specific separation from a source (radioisotope). Similarly, the specific Bremsstrahlung constant is the Bremsstrahlung exposure rate (in C/Kg/h) at a distance of 1cm from a 1-MBq beta source. It is given by Zanzonico et al. 
Where (fβ)i is frequency of emission (i.e., the number per nuclear transformation) of β-ray i. is the mean energy of Bremsstrahlung for β-ray i emitted by a radznuclide. The mean energy of Bremsstrahlung for ith beta particle is given by
is specific Bremsstrahlung constant (in C/ kg-cm2/MBq-h) of β-ray yielding Bremsstrahlung of mean energy An estimation of the specific Bremsstrahlung constant is based on the Bremsstrahlung mean energy rather the actual Bremsstrahlung spectrum, is a gross approximation. The energy dependent corresponds to the conventional energy dependent specific gamma ray constant. Specific gamma ray constant (Г) is an exposure rate( in R/h) due to gamma at a distance of one meter from a source with an activity of 1Ci
Specific bremsstrahlung constant in various aluminium based glassy alloys is estimated using the above formalism.
Results and Discussion
The variation of computed bremsstrahlung efficiency as a function of maximum energy of beta is as shown in Figure 1. Bremsstrahlung efficiency increases with increase in the maximum energy of the beta particle. The comparisons of bremsstrahlung efficiency at different energies (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 MeV) for various Al-glassy alloys (A--Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, B--Al85Y8Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 , C--Al84Y9Ni4Co1.5Fe0.5Pd1, D--Al80Y13Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, E-- Al70Y23Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and F--Al60Y33Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, G-Stainless steel) are also shown in (Figure 1). From this comparison, it is clear that aluminium based glassy alloy Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 is having smaller bremsstrahlung efficiency than other alloys. The variation of computed bremsstrahlung dose rate as a function of maximum energy of beta is as shown in Figure 2. Bremsstrahlung dose rate increases exponentially with maximum energy of the beta. The comparisons of bremsstrahlung dose rate at different energies (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 MeV) for various Al-glassy alloys are also shown in Figure 2. The variation probability of energy loss by beta during bremsstrahlung emission with maximum energy of the beta is as shown in Figure 3. This energy loss of beta increments with increment in the most extreme energy of the beta molecule. The examinations of likelihood of energy misfortune by beta amid bremsstrahlung emanation at various energies for different Al-glassy alloys are also shown in Figure 3. From this comparison, it is clear that the energy lost by beta is small in Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 than other alloys. The variation of specific bremsstrahlung constant with maximum energy of beta is as shown in Figure 4. The evaluated specific bremsstrahlung constant is also tabulated in the Table 1. The specific bremsstrahlung constant increases exponentially with the maximum energy of the beta. The comparisons of specific bremsstrahlung constant at different energies (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 MeV) for various Al-glassy alloys are also shown in Figure 3. From this comparison, it is clear that the specific bremsstrahlung constant values are smaller for Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 than other alloys. The variation of bremsstrahlung dose rate and specific bremsstrahlung constant with modified atomic number is also shown in Figure 5. Bremsstrahlung dose rate and specific bremsstrahlung constant increases with increase in the modified atomic number of alloys. The contemplated bremsstrahlung shielding parameters , for example, bremsstrahlung productivity, probability of energy loss by beta during bremsstrahlung emission and specific bremsstrahlung constant values are littler in the Al-based lustrous alloys Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 than alternate combinations. It means bremsstrahlung production is less in Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 than other studied steels. Hence it is better to use the Al-glassy alloy Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 in the nuclear power plants than that of the stainless steels and other steels to avoid the secondary radiation such as bremsstrahlung.
Figure 1: Comparison of bremsstrahlung efficiency at different energies and variation as a function of maximum energy of beta (A--Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, B--Al85Y8Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and C--Al84Y9Ni4Co1.5Fe0.5Pd1, D--Al80Y13Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, E-- Al70Y23Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and F--Al60Y33Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, G-Stainless steel).
Figure 2: Comparison of bremsstrahlung dose rate at different energies and variation as a function of maximum energy of beta (A--Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, B--Al85Y8Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and C--Al84Y9Ni4Co1.5Fe0.5Pd1, D--Al80Y13Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, E-- Al70Y23Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and F--Al60Y33Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, G-Stainless steel).
Figure 3: Variation of probability of energy loss of beta during bremsstrahlung emission with maximum energy of beta (A--Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, B--Al85Y8Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and C--Al84Y9Ni4Co1.5Fe0.5Pd1, D--Al80Y13Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, E-- Al70Y23Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and F--Al60Y33Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, G-Stainless steel).
Figure 4: Comparison of specific bremsstrahlung constant at different energies and variation as a function of maximum energy of beta (A--Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, B--Al85Y8Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and C--Al84Y9Ni4Co1.5Fe0.5Pd1, D--Al80Y13Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, E-- Al70Y23Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and F--Al60Y33Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, G-Stainless steel).
Figure 5: Variation of bremsstrahlung dose rate and specific bremsstrahlung constant with modified atomic number (A--Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, B--Al85Y8Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and C--Al84Y9Ni4Co1.5Fe0.5Pd1, D--Al80Y13Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, E-- Al70Y23Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and F--Al60Y33Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, G-Stainless steel).
Table 1: Evaluated specific bremsstrahlung constant for various Al-glassy alloys (in ΓBr(R-cm2/mCi-h).
- Sommerfeld A (1931) About the diffraction and braking of the electrons. Ann Phys 403: 257-330.
- Bethe H, Heitler W (1934) On the stopping of fast particles and on the creation of positive electrons. Proc R Soc London.
- Sauter F (1934) Uber die Bremsstrahlung schneller Elektronen. Ann Phys 20: 404-412.
- Racah G (1934) Sulla Nascita di Coppie per Urti di Particelle Elettrizzate. Nuovo Cimento 11: 469.
- Tseng HK, Pratt RH (1971) Electron bremsstrahlung energy spectra above 2 MeV. Phys Rev 19: 1525-1528
- Martin SS, Berger J (1986) Bremsstrahlung energy spectra from electrons with kinetic energy 1 keV-10 GeV incident on screened nuclei and orbital electrons of neutral atoms with Z = 1-100. At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 35: 345-418.
- Singh T, Kahlon KS, Dhaliwal AS (2009) Target thickness dependence of 50 keV electron bremsstrahlung Nucl. Instr. and Meth 267: 737.
- Rudraswamy B, Gopala K, Rao KSG, Venkataramaiah P, Sanjeeviah H, et al. (1983) Z dependence of thick-target external bremsstrahlung produced by Beta particles. Phys Rev 28: 2802-2805.
- Starfelt N, Svantesson NL (1955) Internal and External Bremsstrahlung in Connection with the Beta Decay of S35 Phys Rev 97: 708.
- Shivaramu (1990) Modified Kramers' law for bremsstrahlung produced by complete beta particle absorption in thick targets and compounds. J Appl Phys 68: 1225.
- Manjunatha HC, Rudraswamy B (2007) Theoretical data of External Bremsstrahlung radiation cross-section of bone. Appl Rad Isot 65: 397-400.
- Manjunatha HC, Rudraswamy B (2007) Numerical method for external Bremsstrahlung cross sections in compounds. Rad Meas 42: 251-255.
- Manjunatha HC, Rudraswamy B (2007) Studies on External Bremsstrahlung in thick target compounds. Nucl. Instr Meth 38: 958.
- Manjunatha HC, Rudraswamy B (2010) External Bremsstrahlung of 147 Pm in PbCl 2 and CdO. Nucl Instr Meth 619: 326-329.
- Manjunatha HC, Rudraswamy B (2012) External bremsstrahlung spectra of the 90 Sr source in some lead compounds measured using NaI detector. Rad Meas 47: 100-104.
- Manjunatha HC, Rudraswamy B (2011) Yield constants of external Bremsstrahlung excited by 90 Sr-90 Y, 147 Pm and 204 Tl in CdO and lead compoundsNucl. Instr Meth 632: 18-22.
- Manjunatha HC (2014) Attenuation of bremsstrahlung from 90 Sr-90 Y, 147 Pm and 204 Tl in thick target compounds. Nucl Instr Meth 763: 174-176.
- Manjunatha HC, Rudraswamy B (2017) Rad Det Tech and Meth 1: 2.
- Manjunatha HC, Rudraswamy B (2014) Attenuation of bremsstrahlung from 90 Sr-90 Y, 147 Pm and 204 Tl in thick target compounds. Nucl Instr Meth A 763: 174-176.
- Manjunatha HC, Rudraswamy B (2013) External bremsstrahlung of 90 Sr-90 Y, 147 Pm and 204 Tl in detector compounds. Rad Phy and Chem 85: 95-101.
- Manjunatha HC (2016) Bremsstrahlung dosimetric parameters of beta-emitting therapeutic radionuclides. Rad Eff Def Sol 171: 316-327.
- Manjunatha HC (2014) A dosimetric study of Beta induced bremsstrahlung in bone. App Rad Iso 94: 282-293.
- Manjunatha HC (2014) Dose assessment of bremsstrahlung induced by beta-emitting radioisotopes of uranium-238 series and lead in human tissues. Iso Env Heal Stud 50: 555-564
- Manjunatha HC (2013) Bremsstrahlung dose induced by high energy beta particles (> 1MeV) in bone. Anal of Nucl Ener 59: 53-62.
- Manjunatha HC (2013) Bremsstrahlung dose of therapeutic beta nuclides in bone and muscle. Ind Jour Nucl Med 28: 17-22.
- Manjunatha HC (2013) A study of bremsstrahlung spectra and absorbed dose of beta in teeth enamel and dentin. X-ray Spec 42: 508-523.
- Manjunatha HC, Rudraswamy B (2011) Beta induced Bremsstrahlung exposure in DNA and RNA. Phy Med Eur 27: 188-193.
- Turner J (1986) Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection. (1st edtn), Pergamon Press. New York,
- Markowicz AA, VanGriken RE (1984) Composition dependence of Bremsstrahlung background in electron-probe X-ray microanalysis. Anal Chem 56: 2049-2051.
- Zanzonico PB, Binkert L, Barbara G, Stanley JJ (1999) Bremsstrahlung radiation exposure from pure beta-ray emitters. Nucl Med 40: 1024-1028.