Perspective, J Nucl Ene Sci Power Generat Technol Vol: 12 Issue: 2
Mechanism of Nuclear Reactors: Power of Atomic Energy
Department of Geophysical Prospecting, Kim Sung University, Pyongyang, Korea
Received date: 22-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. JNPGT-23-95441;
Editor assigned date: 24-Feb-2023, PreQC No. JNPGT-23-95441 (PQ);
Reviewed date: 10-Mar-2023, QC No. JNPGT-23-95441;
Revised date: 17-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. JNPGT-23-95441 (R);
Published date: 27-Mar-2023 DOI: 10.4172/2325-9809.1000324.
Citation: Jin Y (2023) Mechanism of Nuclear Reactors: Power of Atomic Energy. J Nucl Ene Sci Power Generat Technol 12:2.
Nuclear reactors are complex systems that connect the power of nuclear reactions to generate electricity. They are important components of nuclear power plants and play a significant role in producing a substantial portion of the world's electricity the mechanism of nuclear reactors is essential for comprehending how they work and how they generate energy in a controlled and safe manner. Nuclear reactions are at the heart of the mechanism of nuclear reactors. These reactions involve the release of energy by manipulating the nuclei of atoms. The two most common types of nuclear reactions that occur in a nuclear reactor are nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.
Nuclear fission is a process where the nucleus of an atom is split into two or more smaller nuclei, along with the release of a large amount of energy. In a nuclear reactor, this process is controlled to generate heat, which is used to produce steam and drive turbines to generate electricity. The fission process is initiated by bombarding the nuclei of certain heavy atoms, such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239, with neutrons, causing them to split and release energy in the form of heat and radiation.
Nuclear fusion is a process where the nuclei of two atoms are combined to form a heavier nucleus, accompanied by the release of a tremendous amount of energy. This process is the reaction that powers the sun and other stars, but it has not yet been fully bound for practical energy production on Earth.
Types of Nuclear Reactors
There are various types of nuclear reactors, each with its own unique design and mechanism. Some of the most commonly used types of nuclear reactors.
Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR): PWRs are the most common type of nuclear reactors used in commercial power plants. In a PWR, water is used as both a coolant and a neutron moderator. The water is kept at a high pressure to prevent it from boiling, and it circulates through the reactor core, absorbing heat from the fission process and transferring it to a steam generator to produce electricity.
Boiling Water Reactor (BWR): BWRs are another type of commercial nuclear reactor. In a BWR, water acts as both a coolant and a neutron moderator similar to a PWR. However, in a BWR the water in the reactor core is allowed to boil, producing steam directly that is used to generate electricity in the turbine.
Heavy Water Reactor (HWR): HWRs use heavy water, which contains a higher concentration of the isotope deuterium, as a coolant and a neutron moderator. Heavy water has a higher neutron-capturing capacity compared to regular water, allowing for more efficient use of uranium fuel.
Gas-Cooled Reactor (GCR): GCRs use a gas, such as carbon dioxide or helium, as a coolant and graphite as a neutron moderator. The graphite slows down the neutrons produced by the fission process, allowing for the sustained chain reaction required for energy production. GCRs are known for their high-temperature output, which makes them suitable for certain industrial applications.