The Journal of Forensic Toxicology and Pharmacology (JFTP) promotes rigorous research that makes a significant contribution in advancing knowledge of variations in biochemical functions and detailed information on forensic studies. The JFTP includes all major themes pertaining to forensic toxicology and pharmacology.
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A Case of Fatal Ingestion of a 10% Benzalkonium Chloride Solution
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a mixture of quaternary ammonium compounds of alkyl-dimethylbenzylammonium chlorides. It has wide ranging use as a disinfectant, germicidal cleaner, algaecide, cationic detergent and topical dermal antiseptic. Ingestion of BAC can cause local caustic effects and systemic effects. The present report involved a 78 year old male with a history of severe dementia who ingested up to 240ml of a germicidal disinfectant containing 10% benzalkonium chloride. Shortly after, he complained of oral pain and nausea, and experienced one episode of vomiting. Upon arrival to the emergency department approximately 45 minutes post-ingestion the patient’s complaints included oral pain, sialorrhea, drooling, spitting, nausea, and coughing, but no increase in work of breathing. Initial evaluation of the oral cavity and oropharynx showed mild erythema and swelling, but without lesions or erosions.
Investigation of Cholesterol Level and Body Mass Index of Completed Suicide Victims
The aim of this study was to investigate the cholesterol level and Body Mass Index (BMI) of completed suicide victims. Ninety cases that were consecutively referred to the Forensic Medicine Institute Morgue Department were included in the study based on evaluations of death examinations and autopsies based on psychological autopsies. Information was obtained from court documents and interviews with the suicide victims’ relatives. Blood samples of the individuals were examined within 48 hours. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests and Pearson Correlation. Most of the victims were male (68.9%) and the most frequent suicide method was hanging (61.1%). It was determined that in 86.7% of the cases the victims had attempted suicide for the first time resulting in completed suicide.
Influence of Aeromonas hdrophilia Infection on the Disposition Kinetic of Norfloxacin in Goldfish(Carassuys auratus Linnaeus)
The pharmacokinetic of norfloxacin (10 mg kg-1) following single intravenous (IV) and oral administration (PO) in healthy goldfish were investigated. Also, repeated (PO) administration of norfloxacin in healthy and experimentally Aeromonas hydrophilia infected goldfish was studied. Following IV administration, norfloxacin obeyed a two compartments open model, distribution half-life (t1/2(α)) equal to 0.12 h, volume of distribution (Vdss) was 1.01 L kg-1, elimination halflife (t1/2(β)) was 4.30 h and total body clearance (CLtot) was 0.17 L kg-1h-1. Following PO administration, norfloxacin was rapidly and efficiently absorbed through gastrointestinal tract as the absorption half-life (t1/2(ab)) was 0.84 h. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) 4.10 μg ml-1, was achieved its maximum time (tmax) at about 2 h post administration and the elimination half-life (t1/2(el)) was 3.91 h. Oral bioavailability was 57.63% indicating moderate absorption of norfloxacin from oral site.
Acute Intravascular Hemolysis Triggered by Herbal Remedy
Red blood cells (RBC) have several protective mechanisms to prevent oxidative stress. One such mechanism is the Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (G6PD). G6PD deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency in the world. 7.5% of the world’s population have either one or two gene mutations for G6PD deficiency. Since the gene for the enzyme is located on the X chromosome in the long arm, males are generally heterozygous and women can be normal, heterozygous or homozygous.