Evaluation of Enteral Nutrient Flavor and Rating due to Differences in Form
Aims: It is necessary for medical staff to fully understand disparities in the comprehensive evaluation of enteral nutrients due to differences in their physical form. In this study, we compared the overall rating of each enteral nutrient with respect to form and examined the factors that influence their overall evaluation. Methods: Sensory tests were conducted on 261 pharmaceutical students using the Sematic Differential method. Comparison of comprehensive evaluations for each form of enteral nutrient was carried out for liquids (room temperature, warm, cold), jelly (solid), and mousse (semi-solid) forms. Additionally, factors influencing the comprehensive evaluation of enteral nutrients were investigated using covariance structure analysis. Results: Overall evaluation of each enteral nutrient form showed the jelly was rated highest (2.57 ± 1.49), followed by the warm liquid (2.53 ± 1.29), cold liquid (2.42 ± 1.20), room temperature liquid (2.26 ± 1.20), and the mousse (1.93 ± 1.07). From the result of factor analysis, four factors (flavor, richness, presence, and texture) were extracted. Covariance structure analysis of factors affecting the overall rating revealed that flavor had a significant influence (fitness index: GFI=0.908, AGFI=0.878, RMSEA=0.074, AIC=912.742). Conclusion: Differences in the form of enteral nutrients affected the overall satisfaction of patients. It is important for medical staff, including pharmacists, to deepen their understanding of factors related to the overall rating of enteral nutrients in order to meet the needs of patients.