Nutrigenetics of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: What do we know so Far?
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) tends to be a new epidemic. It is now considered as the new element of metabolic syndrome, since it is highly correlated with obesity and diabetes mellitus type II. However, there are some patients whose disease is not linked to metabolic abnormalities; the etiology of this type of disease is the genetic background. Main genetic contributors to NAFLD are PNPLA3, TM6SF2 and GCKR. Genetic variations in these loci have been associated with NAFLD onset and progression. Moreover, dietary habits and nutrients’ intake can affect the disease status. Diet composition, such as anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and carbohydrates intake, along with energy intake constitute key factors in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Up to now, treatment of NAFLD is based on generalized dietary intervention. However, there is an urgent need for personalized dietary advice in order to provide health professionals with more precise and drastic NAFLD management tools. Nutrigenetics is a field that examines how genetic variation affects response to diet or nutrients. This literature review meets the need of a summary of all available data regarding nutrigenetics of NAFLD. So far, studies in the area are scarce; however, they hold promise for future personalized dietary interventions, aiming to the reduction of NAFLD incidence.