Opinion Article, J Nanomater Mol Nanotechnol Vol: 11 Issue: 2
Based on the Nature of Photons, Nanofabrication Technology
Maran Ponmurugun *
*Corresponding author: Maran Ponmurugun
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
Received date: 12 January, 2022, Manuscript No. JNMN-22-57886;
Editor assigned date: 14 January, 2022, PreQC No. JNMN-22-57886 (PQ);
Reviewed date: 28 January, 2022, QC No. JNMN-22-57886;
Revised date: 04 February, 2022, Manuscript No. JNMN-22-57886 (R);
Published date: 11 February, 2022, DOI: 10.4172/2324-8777.2022.11(2).1000324
Citation: Ponmurugun M (2022) Based on the Nature of Photons, Nanofabrication Technology. J Nanomater Mol Nanotechnol 11:2.
Novel nanofabrication technology is reviewed and distinctive phenomena originating from the intrinsic nature of the stateless person area unit incontestable. This chapter starts by reviewing chemical science vapor deposition technology that uses a fiber probe or associate degree aperture. The particular natures of the stateless person relevant to the current technology are incontestable. Next, additional sensible technologies area unit reviewed, within which neither a fiber probe nor associate degree aperture is needed. These technologies area unit autonomous smoothing of a cloth surface by etching and by deposition. Experimental results on estimating the utmost size of the stateless person are given. In nanofabrication approaches, numerous styles of etching are used wide, like reactive particle etching and its variant, deep reactive particle etching. It utilizes each chemical and physical etching strategy for removal of huge materials to form them nanoscale-sized materials. Reactive particle etching also can take away solely selective areas to draw patterns. During this technique, the mixture of anions and cautions pumped-up on the surface ultimately reacts and etches the surface of the fabric. To guard areas from etching, they're coated with a mask so that they cannot react with the chemical plasma.
The nanofabrication techniques of SiNWs area unit based mostly, as for alternative nanomaterials, on top-down or bottom-up approaches. A comprehensive description of those techniques goes on the far side the scope of this paragraph and may be found in several review works. Briefly, top-down techniques begin from large element that's formed all the way down to the specified size and morphology through planography mechanisms power-assisted by etching processes. Specifically, nanolithography techniques like electron-beam lithography and nanoimprint lithography followed by reactive-ion etching or wet allotropic etching processes area unit used.
Nanofabrication of electrodes is often performed by etching a metal wire with cyanide and hydroxide. Engraved metal wires will then be coated with wax, varnish, melted paraffin or glass, poly (a-methyl styrene), polyimide, electro polymerized phenol, and cataphoretic paint. Nano tips made by these strategies area unit round shape. Typical preparation of a microscale conductor is performed by heat waterproofing a microware or carbon fiber in a very glass capillary below vacuum. Micro and nanofabrication techniques have revolutionized the pharmaceutical and medical fields as they provide the likelihood for extremely duplicable mass-fabrication of systems with complicated geometries and functionalities, as well as novel drug delivery systems and bionsensors. The principal micro- and nanofabrication techniques area unit delineate, as well as lithography, soft lithography, film deposition, etching, bonding, molecular self assembly, electrically iatrogenic nanopatterning, fast prototyping, and negatron, X-ray, mixture monolayer, and centered ionic beam lithography. Application of those techniques for the fabrication of drug delivery and biosensing systems as well as injectable, implantable, stratum, and mucoadhesive devices is delineate.
Micro and nanodevices have several blessings over their macroscale counterparts. For example, shrinking permits for the manufacture of transportable, hand-held, implantable, or perhaps injectable devices. Additionally, as a results of their minute size, these devices would like less sample or chemical agent for analysis or operation, saving cash and time. Moreover, wherever materials and/or processes area unit restrained by long diffusion times, shrinking provides a mechanism for abbreviating these. A notable example wherever these microdevices leave vital blessings over ancient technologies is in treatment. For instance, point of care diagnostic testing, that is testing performed at the patient’s side, permits physicians to diagnose a patient’s conditions faster than typical labbased testing. By mistreatment these devices to scale back the time to diagnoses, the doc is in a position to form higher patient management selections resulting in improved patient outcomes and scale back the price of care. Advances in electronics and biosensor tools are instrumental in facilitating the event of those point of care diagnostic devices.
Micro fabrication techniques were developed for applications within the semiconductor trade and area unit, consequently, not specific for biological or medical applications. however, each micro and nanofabrication have offered variety of prospects for the study of chemical, biological, and physical processes at the cellular and molecular scale, and for the look of artificial devices capable of interacting with biological systems at these levels. Some of the benefits of micro and nanofabricated devices embrace the power to regulate the options to the metric linear unit scale for duplicable production of structures and devices, the power to shrink already existing systems for the study of cellular or molecular processes, the capability of as well as physics inside structural devices through the employment of the well-developed semiconductor techniques, and also the high output potential with a number of the micro and nanofabrication strategies.
Nanofabrication is that the assortment of techniques that generates duplicable patterns whose components has sizes of 100nm or less in a minimum of one dimension. There are units many areas of Nano science that demand novel approaches to nanofabrication. Most NPs, micro/nanoelectromechanical systems, and micro/nanoneedles area unit fictional by typical nanofabrication techniques, that area unit supported radiation beams and radiation sensitive materials to outline the patterns on the surface. Extremely duplicable mass fabrication of systems with complicated geometries and functionalities, as well as novel drug delivery systems and biosensors has been disbursed by the micro- and nanofabrication techniques. Soft lithography, lithography, film deposition, etching, molecular self-assembly, electrically iatrogenic nanopatterning, fast prototyping, electron, X-ray, mixture monolayer, and centered ionic beam lithography were the principle micro- and nanofabrication techniques and these techniques have revolutionized particularly the pharmaceutical and medical fields. Due to their importance for the creation of compact 3D devices and their assembly into purposeful 3D systems, the strategies of micro/ nanofabrication of 3D structures area unit of skyrocketing interest. Most of this 3D micro/nanofabrication technique was supported ancient second fabrication techniques, like lithography, mistreatment layer by layer ways. Nanofabrication, the technology of the long run, is that the most advanced producing technology in today's world. As a result of this technology lets scientists reach nearly the theoretical limit of accuracy, the dimensions of a molecule or atom, it's conjointly believed to be the intense technology so, it's primarily the manipulation of matter at the nanoscale, which may develop a range of materials and devices way superior, in terms of performance, efficiency, and sturdiness, to those made by typical processes. This manipulation at the nanoscale alters the fabric characteristics while not compromising the basic properties of the substrate and makes them in and of it completely different and comparatively far better compared with their bulk counterparts. Additionally, it conjointly meets each of the foremost demands of the producing trade, ultra precision and miniaturization; so this technology may be a route to excellence within the field of producing.