Millet Intake and Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review
Daily consumption of millet-based foods is associated with a reduced risk of type-2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature describing intervention studies that have investigated the effects of consuming different types and forms of millet on the risk factors for type-2 diabetes. A literature search was conducted, using five databases, from May 2016 to January 2017, which identified 57 articles. Search terms included ‘millet’ AND healthy, pre-diabetic or type-2 diabetes AND fasting blood glucose or glycaemic or glycemic response or insulin response or glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Although glycemic and insulin responses differ depending on the millet type and cooking method used, overall, millet has a beneficial effect on fasting and post-prandial blood glucose and the plasma-insulin response in healthy individuals and those with type-2 diabetes. It can be concluded that millets do have the potential to play a protective role in the management of type-2 diabetes.