Journal of Food and Nutritional DisordersISSN: 2324-9323

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Research Article, J Food Nutr Disord Vol: 6 Issue: 5

Comparison of Flesh Quality of Deep Water Pink Shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris, Lucas 1846) from Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas in Turkey

Gulsum Balcik Misir1*, Sebahattin Kutlu1, Adnan Erteken2, Mustafa Yaman3 and Senem AkkuÅŸ Çevikkalp3

1Central Fisheries Research Institute, Trabzon, Turkey

2Directorate of District Food Agriculture and Livestock, Yomra, Trabzon, Turkey

3The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Marmara Research Center, Food Institute, 41470 Kocaeli, Turkey

*Corresponding Author : Gulsum Balcik Misir
Central Fisheries Research Institute, Vali Adil Yazar Cad. No: 14 Kasustu, Trabzon, Turkey
Tel: +90 462 3411053
Fax:
+90 462 3411152
E-mail:
[email protected]

Received: September 14, 2017 Accepted: September 29, 2017 Published: October 02, 2017

Citation: Misir GB, Kutlu S, Erteken A, Yaman M, Çevikkalp SA (2017) Comparison of Flesh Quality of Deep Water Pink Shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris, Lucas 1846) from Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas in Turkey. J Food Nutr Disord 6:5. doi: 10.4172/2324-9323.1000235

Abstract

Deep water pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) is a species of high commercial importance and the most dominant shrimp species in Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas in Turkey. Biochemical composition, fatty acids, cholesterol and amino acids composition of this species inhabiting these seas were investigated. Mediterranean Sea samples have the highest; Aegean Sea samples have the lowest lipid and cholesterol contents as 0.9 g/100 g, 147 mg/100 g and 0.3 g/100 g, 137 mg/100 g, respectively. ∑PUFA were determined as 30.29%, 19.85% and 19.28%; ∑n-3/∑n-6 was calculated as 6.62, 4.72 and 4.40 for Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, respectively. DHA was the main PUFA among others for all samples. The highest mean essential amino acids were lysine (1826 mg/100 g) and leucine (1397 mg/100 g), while highest non-essential amino acids were glutamic acid (2860 mg/100 g) and glycine (1673 mg/100 g). As a result, it can be said that deep sea pink shrimp inhabiting in Marmara is the most valuable source of ∑PUFA with the highest values of DHA and EPA among other seas. Aegean Sea is the poorest source especially essential amino acids contents of the species.

Keywords: Amino acid analysis; DHA; EPA; fatty acids; GC; Shrimp

Abbreviations

PUFA: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids; MUFA: Monounsaturated Fatty Acids; SFA: Saturated Fatty Acids; DHA: Docosaheptaenoic Acid; EPA: Eicosapentaenoic Acid; GC: Gas Chromatography; CFRI: Central Fisheries Research Institute; TUBITAK MRC FI: Tubitak Marmara Research Center Food Institute; FAME Mix: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Mixture; IA: Index of Atherogenicity; IT: Index Of Thrombogenicity; FLQ: Flesh-Lipid Quality; UFLC: Ultrafast Liquid Chromatography; UV: Ultraviolet; PITC: Phenyl Isothiocyanate; Ldls: Low Density Lipids; HDLs: High Density Lipids; WHO: World Health Organization

Introduction

There is a nutritional approach to increase the fatty acids intake for human health. Omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) have preventive and therapeutic effects on some diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias, coronary heart diseases, diabetes and cancers, as well as anti-atherogenic and anti-thrombotic effects. Weston Price Foundation stated that fish lipid cholesterol is a potent antioxidant protecting against free radicals that damage to cell membranes and promotes myelin formation and neural plasticity in brain [1].

Amino acids are precursors of proteins and act as energy source. Deficiency or excess of one or more essential amino acids, limits protein synthesis and growth or both [2,3].

As a result analyzing biochemical composition, fatty acids, amino acids and cholesterol content of shrimp is beneficial for human diet and health.

An epipelagic short-live species Deep water pink shrimp (P. longirostris, Lucas 1846) has a high commercial importance, especially in Europe. In Turkey, P. longirostris is the most dominant shrimp species in Marmara Sea and inhabit also in Aegean Sea and Mediterranean. It mainly feed on polychaetes, crustaceans and gastropods [4]. This species is exported from Turkey as fresh, canned and frozen, mostly to Italy, Greece, France and Spain [5].

It is well known that biochemical compositions of crustaceans are influenced by their geographic habitat, nutritional habits, salinity, oxygen level, season, sea water temperature, age, sexual maturity etc. [6]. There are several studies conducted on shrimp species and deep sea pink shrimp inhabiting and Turkey seas and others. These studies focused especially on biology, heavy metal accumulation in the body, proximate composition, cholesterol and fatty acids composition of one species of shrimp or more, inhabiting the same habitat [7-11]. But there was no study on comparing the same species inhabiting different seas in Turkey. The objective of this research study is to compare the biochemical composition, fatty acids amino acids and cholesterol contents of deep water pink shrimps harvested from different seas of Turkey, namely Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.

Materials and Methods

Sampling and handling

Shrimp samples were collected in the fishing season, at the same time, from 3 different seas (region) and every region has minimum 6 different points to represent the region, then regional composites were prepared. Obtained from Mediterranean, Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea, samples (n=3 kg) were introduced into polystyrene box with ice, transferred to Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI), Processing laboratory. After beheading and removing the shells, flesh was homogenized with blender. Composite samples (1500 g) were formed by pooling and homogenizing equal quantities (300 g) of individual samples. The homogenate about 500 g was used for biochemical composition, fatty acids and cholesterol analysis. A small amount (about 150 g) of the composite sample was stored in a deep freeze (at least -40°C) to be kept for potential future analysis.

Analysis

All chemical analysis of regional composites was conducted at the laboratories of CFRI and TUBITAK MRC FI. The TUBITAK MRC FI laboratories were accredited according to the standards of EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005. In both laboratories all the analytical methods were validated. Certified reference materials and proficiency testing schemes were used for the evaluation of the analytical methods. Each laboratory sample was analyzed in duplicate.

Biochemical composition and energy

Energy was calculated by Atwater extensive general factor system and energy was estimated by the following formula;

Energy value (estimated) = (4xProtein+ (4xcarbohydrate) + (9xfat) (1)

Carbohydrate data on seafood samples are theoretically indicated with zero values [12]. Moisture and ash contents were described according to [13]; samples put in oven at 105°C, and placed in ash furnace to obtain ash at 550°C until the weights were become constant, protein content was determined by Kjeldal method with conversion factor of 6.25 [13]. Soxhlet method [13] was used for lipid analysis.

Cholesterol analysis

Cholesterol analysis was done according to Fenton and Sim’s [14] method was used for. Cholesterol content was analyzed by GC-17. A GC Shimadzu (with FID- flame ionization detector) capillary column Supelco Omega wax 320 (30×0.32 m) ID, oven temperature of column was 270°C (15 min); Helium (He) (1.5 ml/min) was the carrier gas. Temperature of detector was 300°C temperature of injection block was 280°C. Flow of dry air and hydrogen were 300 ml/min and 30 ml/min respectively. Split ratio was 1/25, attenuation 16. Hexane was used as solvent and it was adjusted as pour 1 μl sample for each time. Three replicate GC analyses were applied.

Fatty acids analysis

Method [15] was used for fatty acid analysis. The fatty acids composition analyzed by GC-17. A GC Shimadzu (with FID- flame ionization detector) capillary column Supelco Omega wax 320 (30 mx0.32 mm), oven temperature of column was 240°C; Helium (He) (30 ml/min) was the carrier gas. Temperature of detector was 250-260°C, temperature of injection block was 250°C. Flow rate of total gas was 50 ml Split ratio was 1/25, range 1. Hexane was used as solvent and it was adjusted as pour 1 μl sample for each time. Supelco™ 37 Component FAME Mix (Cat. No. 47885-U) was used as standard. Three replicate GC analyses were applied and the results were represents in GC area percent as mean values ± standard deviation. The absolute amount of fatty acids g/100 g edible muscle was calculated according to method [16].

The propensity of shrimp muscle to the incidence of coronary heart diseases, lipid quality parameters (Saturation index (S/P), Index of Atherogenicity (IA), Index of Thrombogenicity (IT) and Fleshlipid quality (FLQ)) were calculated from the fatty acid composition data according to [17];

S/P= (14:0+16:0+18:0)/ (MUFA+PUFA) (2)

IA = (12:0 + (4 × 14:0) + 16:0) / (MUFA + + n-6 PUFA + n-3 PUFA) (3)

IT = (14:0 + 16:0 + 18:0) / ((0.5 × MUFA) + (0.5 × n-6 PUFA) + (3 × n-3 PUFA) + (n-3PUFA/n-6 PUFA)) (4)

FLQ = 100 × (% of EPA + % of DHA) / (% of total fatty acids) (5)

Amino acids analysis

Amino acids were analyzed [18,19]. Reversed-Phase Chromatography was used for this analysis. UFLC equipment and UV detector were used. After acidic hydrolysis, samples were derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) than introduced to the column.

Tryptophan analysis was done [20]. Alkaline hydrolysis (120°C for 12 h) was used to destruct tryptophan structure, following this, ashless filter paper was used to filter hydrolysate and pH was adjusted with HCl solution. Tryptophan was separated and detected by reversed-phase column with fluorescence detection within 10 min by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and acetate buffer at pH 6.3.

Analytical results were subjected to scrutiny. Data were checked for inconsistencies, and compared with previously published values for the same and/or similar foods. The appropriateness of the values was also evaluated by simple calculations [21].

Results and Discussion

Proximate composition of crustaceans show differentiations by their geographic habitat, nutritional habits, salinity, oxygen level, season, seawater temperature, age, sexual maturity etc. [6,22].

Energy, proximate composition and cholesterol contents of deep water pink shrimp harvested from Aegean Sea, Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, are given in Table 1.

  Marmara Sea Aegean Sea Mediterranean
Energy (kcal) 79.5 ± 2.1 84.0 ± 2.9 75.0 ± 2.9
Moisture (%) 78.5 ± 1.4 76.9 ± 0.2 81.2 ± 0.5
Ash (%) 1.9 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.0 1.4 ± 0.3
Protein (%) 18.4 ± 1.3 20.3 ± 0.1 16.6 ± 0.1
Lipid (%) 0.6 ± 0.4 0.3 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.3
Cholesterol (mg/100 g) 146.5 ± 6.4 137. ± 1.4 147 ± 2.8

Table 1: Energy, proximate composition and cholesterol contents of deep water shrimp harvested from Marmara Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.

According to the Formula described in Atwater extensive general factor system energy was calculated as 79.5, 84.0 and 75.0 kcal for samples of Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas respectively. Fluctuations in protein and lipid contents would be reflected in a wide range of caloric values. Energy content of the same species caught from North Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea, were calculated as 110.1 and 102.7 kcal respectively [23].

Shrimp is well-known as a good source of protein content ranging between 17-21% [9,11]. In present study, Aegean Sea samples had the highest protein content (20.3%) among seas followed by Marmara sea samples (18.4%) and the lowest protein content was found in Mediterranean Sea samples (16.6%). Similar results were obtained by other researchers [23,24]. In a study, P. longirostis samples were collected in March-May from Ionian Sea, and protein content of P. longirostis calculated as 18.72% [25]. Other researchers studied some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) that sampled from Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean) during the spring season. They found protein content as 19.9 g/100 g. Their result was higher than present studies Mediterranean Sea samples protein content. Because the species was different the different result may be affected from this variation [26]. In another study researchers studied on Crangon crangon. L. 1758 obtained Sinop Peninsula (Black Sea, Turkey) in June 2007 and found 18.47 g/100 g protein, these results similar to present results [10].

In present study, Mediterranean Sea samples had the maximum lipid, moisture and minimum ash contents as 0.9%, 81.2% and 1.4% in order whereas Aegean Sea samples had the minimum lipid and moisture contents as 0.3%, 76.9% respectively. Lipid content of Aristaeomorpha foliacea was determined as 0.7 g/100 g which was similar to present studies Mediterranean Sea samples lipid content [27]. It was evaluated the some coating solution on the quality and shelf life of cold stored deep water pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris Lucas 1846) [28]. Researchers collected raw material from Aegean Sea, Turkey. The lipid value of the raw material was 1.52%. This value was higher than present results of Aegean Sea samples. Sampling season was not given in this study the difference may be occurred as a result of sampling season difference, or sampling location, in other words feeding opportunities. Parapenaeus longirostris was harvested from North East Mediterranean Sea and 1.6% lipid content was found in the study [24]. Researchers studied on different shrimp species harvested from Mediterranean Sea and total lipid content was 1.8 g/100 g. They found lipid content of the same species that in present study, was 1.04%. These values were differed from present results. These differences may be caused by the different harvesting times or different regions that sampling done [27]. Moisture content of shrimp was reported as changing generally between 75-80% [9-11]. Maximum ash content was obtained from Marmara Sea’s samples as 1.9%. The ash content of shrimp was found similar in previous researches [26,28,29].

In present study the minimum cholesterol value was obtained from shrimp harvested from Aegean Sea (137.0 mg/kg). Results of Marmara and Mediterranean Seas were very similar; 146.5 and 147.0 mg/kg respectively. In a previous study researchers studied on two different shrimp species one was farmed species (Penaeus vannamei) and marine species (Penaeus semisulcatus). They found cholesterol content of Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus semisulcatus as 116.403 mg/100 g and 121.87 mg/100 g respectively) [30]. Cholesterol content was found as 173.6 mg/100 g for brown shrimp harvested from Sinop, Black Sea by other researchers. This value is higher than present results [10]. In previous study cholesterol content was calculated for Parapenaeus longirostris as 109.3 mg/100 g this result on the other hand is lower than our result [31]. Similarly another study conducted by Rosa and Nunes [32] they calculated cholesterol contents for red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) and pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris), with a mean of 60.8 and 57.8 mg/100 g respectively, which were lower than present results. These differences may be explained by different species, size, season or inhabiting environment in other words different diet. Shellfish are high in cholesterol but contain omega-3 fatty acids that may actually help lower cholesterol levels. The most important factor is that shellfish are very low in saturated fat. One study showed that eating crabs, clams, mussels and oysters lowered low density lipids (LDLs) and raised high density lipids (HDLs), while shrimp and squid had a neutral effect [33].

The dietetic value of seafood meat is also determined by the lipid quality indices, which depend on the relative proportions of some individual saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These indices indicate the global dietetic quality of lipids and their potential effects on the development of coronary disease [34,35].

Fatty acids composition of deep water pink shrimp caught from Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas is given at Table 2. Total SFA values were determined as 34.97%, 41.60% and 43.80% for Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, respectively. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid; for Marmara Sea samples it comprised 21.45% of total fatty acids. It was followed by stearic acid (C18:0) with 5.30% and myristic acid with 4.67%. In the case of Aegean and Mediterranean Sea samples, although C16:0 was the predominant SFA, it was followed by myristic acid (C14:0) and stearic acid (C18:0). Values of palmitic acid, myristic acid and stearic acid were 25.42%. 8.51% and 5.52% for Aegean and 26.80%. 9.04% and 5.91% for Mediterranean Sea samples, respectively. Total SFA was determined as 34.13%, palmitic acid 18.46% and stearic acid 5.25% for P. longirostis by other researchers [25]. Two shrimp species cultured (Penaeus vannamei) and marine (Penaeus semisulcatus) origin were compared in the study that ΣSFA of Penaeus semisulcatus 49.12% which was higher than present study results [30]. In a previous study it was found similar results with our Marmara Sea results, for ΣSFA (33.04%) and palmitic acid (20.69%) for Crangon crangon (L. 1758) inhabiting in Black Sea [10]. Other previous studies also supported our findings that palmitic acid was the predominant SFA for different shrimp species [9,11,32]. Similar ΣMUFA values were obtained from all samples as 29.35%, 29.94% and 28.68% for Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean seas in order. Oleic acid (C18:1) was the predominant MUFA for all samples and it was followed by palmitoleic acid (C16:1); obtained values for C18:1 were 22.02%. 19.16% and 18.46% and for C16:1 was 5.96%, 9.21% and 9.04% for Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean seas, respectively. In another study, ΣMUFA, oleic acid and palmitoleic acid contents of P. longirostis were determined as 27.25%, 20.78% and 4.13% [25]. Although ΣMUFA and oleic acid values were similar to present study, palmitoleic acid was lower. ΣMUFA was found as 24.9 in Penaeus semisulcatus [30]). In the study of Turan et al. [10] the order is similar but obtained oleic acid value (14.25%) lower than ours, palmitoleic acid value (5.60%) was in accordance with our study Marmara Sea results for Brown shrimp. Total PUFA values were determined as 30.29%, 19.85% and 19.28% for Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, respectively. DHA (C22:6n-3) was the main PUFA among others. It was the highest in Marmara samples (15.07%). Lower values, approximately half of Marmara’s, were obtained from Aegean (7.37%) and Mediterranean Seas (8.18%). The second major PUFA was EPA (C20:5n-3) which was the highest in Marmara (6.58%) which was similar to Aegean (6.15%) and the lowest in Mediterranean Sea (4.35%). EPA was followed by linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); it was 2.85% for Marmara, 3.29% for Aegean and 2.67% for Mediterranean Sea. Other researchers obtained DHA and EPA values for Brown shrimp as 9.38% and 11.79%, in order. Their results were different from present study’s results [10]. ΣPUFA, DHA and EPA were determined as 38.62, 14.28% and 12.68% respectively for P. longirostis. These values were higher than present study for ΣPUFA and EPA, and similar for DHA of Marmara Sea samples of present study [25]. Nutritional qualities of Penaeidean shrimps collected along Chennai coast were studied [36]. EPA values were the highest for all groups it was followed by DHA. Eicosapentaenoic acid value of Penaeus semisulcatus was determined as 5.2% in another study [30] which was lower than present research results. These results were not in appropriate with present study. The different species may be the main result of this difference. Also different habitat, season could be effected the results.

Fatty Acids Marmara Sea Aegean Sea Mediterranean
C14:0 4.67 ± 0.01 8.51 ± 0.15 9.04 ± 0.35
C15:0 0.31 ± 0.01 0.23 ± 0.02 0.23 ± 0.01
C16:0 21.45 ± 0.02 25.42 ± 0.62 26.80 ± 0.46
C17:0 0.87 ± 0.05 0.80 ± 0.01 0.75 ± 0.03
C18:0 5.30 ± 0.00 5.52 ± 0.06 5.91 ± 0.10
C20:0 1.16 ± 0.02 0.71 ± 0.04 0.63 ± 0.01
C22:0 0.44 ± 0.02 0.29 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.01
C24:0 0.79 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.01
SFA 34.97 ± 0.03 41.60 ± 0.33 43.80 ± 0.86
C16:1 5.96 ± 0.08 9.21 ± 0.35 9.04 ± 0.80
C18:1 22.02 ± 0.19 19.16 ± 0.01 18.46 ± 0.53
C20:1 0.47 ± 0.02 0.63 ± 0.08 0.60 ± 0.01
C22:1 0.39 ± 0.01 0.32 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.02
C24:1 0.52 ± 0.00 0.56 ± 0.08 0.29 ± 0.03
MUFA 29.35 ± 0.03 29.94 ± 0.45 28.68 ± 1.27
C18:2 2.40 ± 0.01 2.97 ± 0.26 1.73 ± 0.01
C18:3n-3 2.85 ± 0.25 3.29 ± 0.23 2.67 ± 0.35
C18:3n-6 1.30 ± 0.02 0.61 ± 0.04 1.76 ± 0.40
C20:4 2.10 ± 0.03 0.65 ± 0.04 0.58 ± 0.05
C20:5n-3 6.58 ± 0.02 6.15 ± 0.52 4.38 ± 0.30
C22:6n-3 15.07 ± 0.13 7.37 ± 0.17 8.18 ± 0.16
PUFA 30.29 ± 0.07 19.85 ± 1.90 19.28 ± 0.54
others 5.40 ± 0.01 8.62 ± 2.01 8.26 ± 1.58

Table 2: Fatty acids composition of Deep water shrimp caught from Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.

Lipid Quality indexes of deep water pink shrimp collected from Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Sea were given in Table 3 and Total n-3/n-6 ratios were calculated as 6.62, 4.72 and 4.40 for Marmara, Aegean Mediterranean seas. Researchers explained that the n-3/n-6 ratio is a good index for comparing the relative nutritional value of fish oils [37]. N-3/n-6’s were calculated as 5.04, 1.14 and 1.18 for three different shrimp species. Only result of S. crassicornis n-3/n-6 ratio (5.04) was similar to present study [36]. Other researchers [24] calculated this ratio as 4.50 for Parapenaeus longirostris and 5.2 for Plesionika martia which were similar to our Aegean and Mediterranean Sea samples. Yanar and Çelik [11] found this ratio lower than ours for Penaeus semisulcatus as 2.36 and Metapenaeus monoceros as 1.60. Also lower ratio of n-3/n-6 was calculated as 3.31 for brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L. 1758) [10]. PUFA/SFA ratio is another important parameter currently used to evaluate the nutritional quality of fish. This ratio was recommended higher than 0.45 [38]. Another recommendation was done about PUFA/SFA ratio above 0.4 [39]. On the other hand several researchers stated that PUFA/SFA ratio must not be higher than 1.5. In our study this ratio was calculated as 0.87, 0.48 and 0.44 for Marmara Aegean and Mediterranean Seas in order, these ratios are in accordance with above recommendations. Atherogenicity index (IA) and thrombogenicity index (IT) indicate the global dietetic quality of lipids and their potential effect on the development of coronary disease [17]. Values of IA and IT higher than 1.0 are detrimental to human health [40] IA values in our study were 0.70, 1.19 and 1.33 and IT values were 0.33, 0.56 and 0.63. Only small difference exist in IA values of Aegean and Mediterranean seas that were higher than 1.0, as recommended. In a previous study researchers calculated AI and TI as 0.34 and 0.24 respectively for P. longirostis, which were lower than present study’s results [25]. Although these qualified indexes obtained, it should be taken it in consideration that this species included in low fatty organisms, as a result fatty acids values can be neglected for a good nutritional perspective.

Quality Indexes Marmara Sea Aegean Sea Mediterranean Sea
∑n-3 24.49 ± 0.14 16.39 ± 0.12 15.22 ± 0.20
∑n-6 3.70 ± 0.01 3.58 ± 0.30 3.48 ± 0.40
∑n3/n-6 6.62 ± 0.06 4.72 ± 0.43 4.40 ± 0.44
∑PUFA/∑SFA 0.87 ± 0.00 0.48 ± 0.05 0.44 ± 0.02
S/P 0.53 ± 0,00 0.79 ± 0.01 0.87 ± 0.01
IA 0.70 ± 0.01 1.19 ± 0.01 1.33 ± 0.02
IT 0.33 ± 0.00 0.56 ± 0.02 0.63 ± 0.02
FLQ 22.88 ± 0.21 14.29 ± 0.03 13.27 ± 0.13

Table 3: Lipid Quality indexes of deep water pink shrimp collected from Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Sea (%).

The amino acid composition is shown in Table 4. The most abundant essential amino acid was lysine. The highest value of lysine was found in Marmara Sea samples (1895.0 mg/100 g); followed by Mediterranean (1807.0 mg/100 g) and the lowest in Aegean Sea samples (1766.0 mg/100 g). Tryptophan has the minimum values among essential amino acids. It was highest (257.0 mg/100 g) in Marmara sea samples and lowest (213.0 mg/100 g) in Mediterranean Sea samples. Among non-essential amino acids glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid. The highest value of glutamic acid was determined in Mediterranean sea samples (3020.0 mg/100 g), Marmara sea samples had the second (2782.0 mg/100 g) and Aegean sea samples was the third order (2407.5 mg/100 g). Aspartic acid (1913.0 mg/100 g) followed glutamic acid and the lowest value of aspartic acid obtained from Aegean Sea samples (1341.5 mg/100 g). The minimum non-essential amino acid was cysteine. It was highest in Mediterranean Sea samples with the value 166 mg/100 g. Marmara sea samples (160.7 mg/100 g) and Aegean Sea samples (135.0 mg/100 g) followed, in order. Previous researchers evaluated the amino acid composition of three species of Penaeidean shrimps. All the samples had essential amino acids in their structures the main essential amino acids were histidine, methionine, cystiene, phenylalanine, tyrosine and threonine. The highest amino acid was glutamine (1.42 g/100 g) and the lowest was tryptophan (0.13 g/100 g). These results were in accordance with present study results [36]. In another study conducted by other researchers [30], glutamine was found to be the highest amino acid among others (42.62 mg/g) and glycine was the lowest (1.90 mg/g) for Penaeus semisulcatus. In a study amino acids were determined in the edible part of red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus). Researchers found similar results with our findings [32]. In another study conducted on black tiger shrimp and white shrimp and researchers reported different amino acid compositions in their study. They found that most abundant amino acid in both species was arginine (4273 and 3494 mg/100 g respectively) proline, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and glutamic acid were abundant in both species [11]. Amino acids contribute directly enhance the taste, and also participate indirectly in flavor development [41-43]. According to our result amino acids that give bitter taste were low amounts. Proline shows an important adjustment necessary for osmoregulation following changes in osmotic stress [44].

Amino acids Marmara Sea Aegean Sea Mediterranean
Aspartic Acid 1520 ± 41.10 1341.5 ± 149.2 1913 ± 157.0
Proline 846.5 ± 111.0 799 ± 83.4 624.5 ± 27.6
Threonine 1006.5 ± 444.7 592 ± 60.8 1432 ± 83.4
Serine 698.5 ± 24.7 620.5 ± 64.3 714 ± 36.8
Glutamic Acid 2782 ± 12.7 2407.5 ± 2553 3020 ± 210.7
Glycine 1793 ± 39.6 1519.5 ± 153.4 17368 ± 80.6
Alanine 1309 ± 86.3 1180 ± 123.0 849.5 ± 45.9
Cysteine 160 ± 7.1 135 ± 14.1 166 ± 26.8
Valine 720.5 ± 112.4 687.5 ± 72.8 694 ± 31.1
Methionine 510.5 ± 4.9 443.5 ± 46.0 538 ± 74.9
Isoleucine 703.5 ± 98.3 675.5 ± 71.4 718.5 ± 37.4
Leucine 1342 ± 103.2 1223.5 ± 129.4 1401 ± 29.7
Tyrosine 553.5 ± 58.7 513 ± 53.7 576.5 ± 17.7
Phenylalanine 780.5 ± 62.9 711.5 ± 74.2 792.5 ± 44.5
Lysine 1895 ± 210.7 1766 ± 189.5 1807 ± 142.8
Lysine 1895 ± 210.7 1766 ± 189.5 1807 ± 142.8
Histidine 422.5 ± 89.8 407.3 ± 11.3 503.0 ± 69.6
Tryptophan 257 ± 26.9 253.5 ± 48.8 213 ± 18.3
Arginine 639 ± 117.4 479 ± 49.5 820 ± 24.0

Table 4: The amino acid composition of deep water shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) harvested from Aegean Sea, Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, (mg/100 g).

In conclusion, As a result, it can be said that deep sea pink shrimp inhabiting in Marmara is the most valuable source of ΣPUFA with the highest values of DHA and EPA among other seas. Aegean Sea is the poorest source especially essential amino acids contents of the species. Greenly has [33] explained that eating crabs, clams, mussels, and oysters lowered low density lipids (LDLs) and raised high density lipids (HDLs), while shrimp and squid had a neutral effect. Although high cholesterol content found in present study, this cholesterol may not increase LDLs level in human blood.

Acknowledgements

This study has been funded by TÜBÄ°TAK KAMAG TARAL-1007 Research Programme.

References

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